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SOLID Design: The Interface Segregation Principle (ISP)

After having covered The Open-Close Principle (OCP), The Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP) and the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) let’s talk about the Interface Segregation Principle (ISP) which is the I in the SOLID acronym. The ISP definition is:

Client should not be forced to depend on methods it does not use.

It is all about interface, the common abstractions available in most OOP language such as C#, VB.NET or Java. A more complete and actionable explanation of ISP is:

ISP splits interfaces that are very large into smaller and more specific ones so that clients will only have to know about the methods that are of interest to them. Such shrunken interfaces are also called role interfaces.

Roles and Responsibilities

When a class implements several shrunken role interfaces, it has several roles which might lead to think that such class has several responsibilities: it would then violate the Single Responsibility Services.

But a role is a finer-grained concept than a responsibility. An example of a role is the IDisposable interface:

This interface has a single method but it is implemented by a wide variety of classes: DB or network connections that need to be closed gracefully, UI elements that need to deallocate some bitmaps in memory… The only thing the IDisposable interface says to clients is that instances of IDisposable class needs a graceful shutdown.

Hence IDisposable represents a technical detail that the client needs to be aware of. It is much finer-grained concept than a responsibility.

A small interface is not necessarily a good abstraction

A single method interface often makes sense, an IExecutor that Execute(), an IVisitor that Visit(), an IParent that exposes Children { get; }. Often, such minimalist interface should be generic. For example the interface ICloneable available since the .NET Framework v1.1 is nowadays considered as a code smell: when using it the client needs to downcast the cloned Object reference returned to do anything useful with the cloned instance.

ICloneable has another major drawback: it doesn’t inform the client if the clone operation is deep or shallow. This problem is even more serious than the Object reference downcasting one: it is a real design problem. As we can see a minimalist interface is not necessarily a good abstraction. In this example, the lack of information means ambiguity for the client. This would have been better design:

A fat interface is not necessarily a design flaw

A rule like Avoid too large interfaces can certainly pinpoint most of the ISP violations. A threshold of 10 methods is proposed by default to define a too large interface.

However, as always with code metrics and static analysis, such rule can also spit some false positives. For example this fat interface is valid:

In such case the SuppressMessageAttribute can be used with a proper justification. Such justification embeds in the code itself the design decisions. It makes the source code more understandable and more maintainable:

ISP and the Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP)

ISP and LSP are like 2 faces of the same coin:

  • ISP is the client perspective: If an interface is too fat probably the client sees some behaviors it doesn’t care for.
  • LSP is the implementer perspective: If an interface is too fat probably a class that implements it won’t implement all its behaviors. Some behavior will end up throwing something like a NotSupportedException.

Remember the ICollection<T> interface already discussed in the LSP article. This interface forces all its implementers to implement an Add() method. From the Array class perspective, implementing ICollection<T> is a violation of the LSP because array doesn’t support element adding:

The same way many clients will only need a read-only view of consumed collections. ICollection<T> also violates the ISP: it forces those clients to be coupled with Add() / Insert() / Remove() methods they don’t need. The introduction of IReadOnlyCollection<T> solved both ISP and LSP violations.

This example also shows that ISP doesn’t necessarily mean that a class should implement several lightweight interfaces. It is fine to nest interfaces like russian-nesting-dolls. ICollection<T> is a bit fat, it does a lot, read, add, insert, remove, count… But this interface is well-adapted both for classes that are read/write collections and for clients that work on read/write collection. It makes more sense to nest both read/write behaviors into ICollection<T> than to decompose both behaviors into IReadOnlyCollection<T> and an hypothetical IWriteOnlyCollection<T> interface.

Btw, maybe you noticed that ICollection<T> actually doesn’t implement IReadOnlyCollection<T>. In an ideal world it should implement it but IReadOnlyCollection<T> was introduced several years after ICollection<T> and backward compatibility must be preserved: for example this class would have been broken if ICollection<T> was implementing IReadOnlyCollection<T>, because of the explicit interface implementation usage on ICollection<T>.Count:

Conclusion

ISP is about preventing inadvertent coupling between a client and some behaviors he/she won’t need. Being coupled with something unneeded is a problem:

  • In the best case it is a waste: this forces the client to consume precious brain-cycles to consider something he/she doesn’t need.
  • In the worst case it is error-prone: the client ends-up misusing the extra behaviors, like attempting to add an element to an array through ICollection<T>.Add().

As for all SOLID principles, ISP is better applied if you practice test-first, or at least, if you write tests and code at the same time. ISP is about the client perspective and writing tests transforms you for a while into a client of your code.

 


Out of curiosity I wrote this code query that can be re-used to attempt to measure compliance with the ISP.

This query estimates the ratio of usage of the methods of an interface over the maximum usage (maximum usage being when all types consuming an interface call all methods of the interface). Some work would be needed to transform this experimental query into a formal rule. For example the query needs to be smart about methods overloaded that can arguably be considered as a single method.

Nevertheless here are the raw results for non-public interfaces of the .NET framework implementation. Only non-public interfaces are considered because we need to also analyze some real clients of the interface:

927 types score tUsers interfaceMethods Full Name
IExceptionData 0.33 3 types 1 method Microsoft.Build.Tasks.Xsd.IExceptionData
IDtcNetworkAccessConfig 0.077 2 types 13 methods Microsoft.Tools.ServiceModel.WsatConfig .IDtcNetworkAccessConfig
INetFirewallOpenPort 0.6 1 type 15 methods Microsoft.Tools.ServiceModel.WsatConfig .INetFirewallOpenPort
INetFirewallOpenPortsCollection 0.6 1 type 5 methods Microsoft.Tools.ServiceModel.WsatConfig .INetFirewallOpenPortsCollection
INetFirewallProfile 0.071 1 type 14 methods Microsoft.Tools.ServiceModel.WsatConfig .INetFirewallProfile
INetFirewallPolicy 0.5 1 type 2 methods Microsoft.Tools.ServiceModel.WsatConfig .INetFirewallPolicy
INetFirewallMgr 0.2 1 type 5 methods Microsoft.Tools.ServiceModel.WsatConfig .INetFirewallMgr
IDtdInfo 0.056 23 types 7 methods System.Xml.IDtdInfo
IDtdAttributeListInfo 0.33 3 types 6 methods System.Xml.IDtdAttributeListInfo
IDtdAttributeInfo 0.39 4 types 7 methods System.Xml.IDtdAttributeInfo
IDtdDefaultAttributeInfo 0.11 9 types 4 methods System.Xml.IDtdDefaultAttributeInfo
IDtdEntityInfo 0.19 6 types 12 methods System.Xml.IDtdEntityInfo
IDtdParser 0.58 3 types 4 methods System.Xml.IDtdParser
IDtdParserAdapter 0.21 5 types 32 methods System.Xml.IDtdParserAdapter
IDtdParserAdapterWithValidation 0.75 2 types 2 methods System.Xml .IDtdParserAdapterWithValidation
IDtdParserAdapterV1 1 1 type 3 methods System.Xml.IDtdParserAdapterV1
IValidationEventHandling 0.3 10 types 2 methods System.Xml.IValidationEventHandling
IRemovableWriter 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.Xml.IRemovableWriter
INameScope 1 2 types 2 methods System.Xml.Serialization.INameScope
IXamlBuildProviderExtension 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.Xaml.Hosting .IXamlBuildProviderExtension
IXamlBuildProviderExtensionFactory 1 1 type 1 method System.Xaml.Hosting .IXamlBuildProviderExtensionFactory
IAddLineInfo 0.5 2 types 1 method MS.Internal.Xaml.Runtime.IAddLineInfo
ICheckIfInitialized 0.5 2 types 1 method MS.Internal.Xaml.Context .ICheckIfInitialized
IServiceDescriptionBuilder 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Description .IServiceDescriptionBuilder
IExternalDataExchange 0.33 3 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Activities .IExternalDataExchange
IWDEProgramNode 0 1 type 1 method System.Workflow.Runtime.DebugEngine .IWDEProgramNode
IWDEProgramPublisher 1 1 type 2 methods System.Workflow.Runtime.DebugEngine .IWDEProgramPublisher
ISupportWorkflowChanges 1 1 type 3 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel .ISupportWorkflowChanges
ISupportAlternateFlow 1 11 types 1 method System.Workflow.ComponentModel .ISupportAlternateFlow
IDependencyObjectAccessor 0.3 10 types 4 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel .IDependencyObjectAccessor
IWorkflowCoreRuntime 0.1 20 types 31 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel .IWorkflowCoreRuntime
ITimerService 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel .ITimerService
IWorkflowDesignerMessageSink 0.23 4 types 32 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Design .IWorkflowDesignerMessageSink
IPropertyValueProvider 1 2 types 1 method System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Design .IPropertyValueProvider
IOleServiceProvider 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Compiler .IOleServiceProvider
IWorkflowBuildHostProperties 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Compiler .IWorkflowBuildHostProperties
IWorkflowCompilerError 0 1 type 6 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Compiler .IWorkflowCompilerError
IWorkflowCompilerErrorLogger 1 1 type 2 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Compiler .IWorkflowCompilerErrorLogger
ISymUnmanagedReader 0.12 1 type 17 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Compiler .ISymUnmanagedReader
ISymUnmanagedMethod 0.2 1 type 10 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Compiler .ISymUnmanagedMethod
ISymUnmanagedDocument 0.1 1 type 10 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Compiler .ISymUnmanagedDocument
IMetaDataDispenser 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.Workflow.ComponentModel.Compiler .IMetaDataDispenser
ITypeAuthorizer 0.33 3 types 1 method System.Workflow.ComponentModel .Serialization.ITypeAuthorizer
IDirectoryOperation 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Workflow.Activities .IDirectoryOperation
ICorrelationProvider 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.Workflow.Activities .ICorrelationProvider
IMethodResponseMessage 0.25 2 types 4 methods System.Workflow.Activities .IMethodResponseMessage
IDeliverMessage 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.Workflow.Activities .IDeliverMessage
IPropertyValueProvider 1 2 types 1 method System.Workflow.Activities.Common .IPropertyValueProvider
IAliasResolver 1 1 type 2 methods System.Resources.IAliasResolver
ISection 0 4 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISection
ISectionEntry 0 1 type 2 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISectionEntry
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_INSTALLATION_REFEREN CE 0 1 type 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_INSTALLATION_REFERE NCE
IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA
IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA_PROPERTY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA_PROPERTY
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_FILE 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_FILE
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_SUBCATEGORY 0.25 2 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_SUBCATEGORY
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_INSTANCE 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_INSTANCE
IReferenceIdentity 0.071 7 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IReferenceIdentity
IDefinitionIdentity 0.038 13 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IDefinitionIdentity
IEnumDefinitionIdentity 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumDefinitionIdentity
IEnumReferenceIdentity 0.25 2 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumReferenceIdentity
IDefinitionAppId 0.059 17 types 6 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IDefinitionAppId
IReferenceAppId 0.2 5 types 5 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IReferenceAppId
IIdentityAuthority 0 1 type 18 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IIdentityAuthority
IAppIdAuthority 0.062 3 types 16 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IAppIdAuthority
IStore 0.24 4 types 20 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IStore
IManifestParseErrorCallback 0 1 type 1 method System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IManifestParseErrorCallback
IManifestInformation 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IManifestInformation
IActContext 0.28 2 types 18 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IActContext
ICMS 0.011 4 types 22 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.ICMS
IDescriptionMetadataEntry 0.43 1 type 7 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IDescriptionMetadataEntry
IDeploymentMetadataEntry 0.17 1 type 6 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IDeploymentMetadataEntry
IMetadataSectionEntry 0.14 1 type 21 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IMetadataSectionEntry
FileDialogNative+IModalWindow 0 1 type 1 method System.Windows.Forms .FileDialogNative+IModalWindow
FileDialogNative+IShellItemArray 0.14 2 types 7 methods System.Windows.Forms .FileDialogNative+IShellItemArray
FileDialogNative+IFileDialog 0.017 5 types 24 methods System.Windows.Forms .FileDialogNative+IFileDialog
FileDialogNative+IFileOpenDialog 0.038 2 types 26 methods System.Windows.Forms .FileDialogNative+IFileOpenDialog
FileDialogNative+IFileSaveDialog 0 2 types 29 methods System.Windows.Forms .FileDialogNative+IFileSaveDialog
FileDialogNative+IFileDialogEvents 0 1 type 7 methods System.Windows.Forms .FileDialogNative+IFileDialogEvents
FileDialogNative+IShellItem 0 7 types 5 methods System.Windows.Forms .FileDialogNative+IShellItem
IKeyboardToolTip 0.23 4 types 13 methods System.Windows.Forms.IKeyboardToolTip
ISupportOleDropSource 1 1 type 2 methods System.Windows.Forms .ISupportOleDropSource
ISupportToolStripPanel 0.27 6 types 8 methods System.Windows.Forms .ISupportToolStripPanel
ListView+ListViewItemCollection+IInnerLi st 0.31 3 types 15 methods System.Windows.Forms .ListView+ListViewItemCollection+IInnerL ist
NativeMethods+IHTMLDocument 0 1 type 1 method System.Windows.Forms .NativeMethods+IHTMLDocument
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLDocument 0 6 types 1 method System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLDocument
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLDocument2 0.057 6 types 109 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLDocument2
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLDocument3 0.049 3 types 41 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLDocument3
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLDocument4 0.071 2 types 14 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLDocument4
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLFramesCollectio n2 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLFramesCollecti on2
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLLocation 0.039 4 types 19 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLLocation
UnsafeNativeMethods+IOmHistory 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IOmHistory
UnsafeNativeMethods+IOmNavigator 0 1 type 19 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IOmNavigator
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLEventObj 0.14 5 types 25 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLEventObj
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLEventObj2 0 1 type 56 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLEventObj2
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLEventObj4 0 1 type 1 method System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLEventObj4
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLElementCollecti on 0.083 4 types 6 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLElementCollect ion
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLElement 0.043 7 types 87 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLElement
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLElement2 0.065 3 types 98 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLElement2
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLElement3 0.035 2 types 43 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLElement3
UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLStyle 0.0056 2 types 178 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IHTMLStyle
UnsafeNativeMethods+ICorRuntimeHost 0.026 2 types 19 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+ICorRuntimeHost
UnsafeNativeMethods+IServiceProvider 0 1 type 1 method System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IServiceProvider
UnsafeNativeMethods+IAccessibleEx 0 1 type 4 methods System.Windows.Forms .UnsafeNativeMethods+IAccessibleEx
PropertyGridView+IMouseHookClient 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Windows.Forms .PropertyGridInternal .PropertyGridView+IMouseHookClient
IArrangedElement 0.12 32 types 9 methods System.Windows.Forms.Layout .IArrangedElement
IDataPointCustomPropertiesProvider 1 1 type 1 method System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting .IDataPointCustomPropertiesProvider
IChartElement 0.25 4 types 4 methods System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting.IChartElement
INameController 0.57 1 type 7 methods System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting.INameController
IChartRenderingEngine 0.93 1 type 45 methods System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting.IChartRenderingEngine
IDesignerMessageBoxDialog 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting.IDesignerMessageBoxDialog
IFormula 0.25 2 types 2 methods System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting.Formulas.IFormula
IChartType 0.11 13 types 22 methods System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting.ChartTypes.IChartType
ICircularChartType 0.17 5 types 6 methods System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting.ChartTypes.ICircularChartType
IBorderType 0.3 4 types 5 methods System.Windows.Forms.DataVisualization .Charting.Borders3D.IBorderType
INotifyConnection2 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.Web.Services.Interop .INotifyConnection2
INotifySink2 0.5 2 types 4 methods System.Web.Services.Interop.INotifySink2
INotifySource2 0 1 type 1 method System.Web.Services.Interop .INotifySource2
IDeviceSpecificChoiceDesigner 0.5 4 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .IDeviceSpecificChoiceDesigner
IDeviceSpecificDesigner 0.15 11 types 10 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .IDeviceSpecificDesigner
IListDesigner 0.05 2 types 10 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .IListDesigner
IRefreshableDeviceSpecificEditor 0.5 2 types 7 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .IRefreshableDeviceSpecificEditor
NativeMethods+IStream 0 1 type 11 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IStream
NativeMethods+IHTMLElement 0.0077 3 types 87 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLElement
NativeMethods+IHTMLDocument2 0.0055 5 types 109 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLDocument2
NativeMethods+IHTMLDocument3 0.012 2 types 41 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLDocument3
NativeMethods+IHTMLStyleSheet 0 1 type 21 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLStyleSheet
NativeMethods+IHTMLStyle 0 1 type 178 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLStyle
NativeMethods+IHTMLElementCollection 0 1 type 6 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLElementCollection
NativeMethods+IHTMLDOMNode 0 1 type 20 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLDOMNode
NativeMethods+IOleContainer 0 2 types 3 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleContainer
NativeMethods+IOleClientSite 0 1 type 6 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleClientSite
NativeMethods+IOleDocumentSite 0 1 type 1 method System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleDocumentSite
NativeMethods+IOleDocumentView 0.15 2 types 13 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleDocumentView
NativeMethods+IOleInPlaceSite 0 1 type 12 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleInPlaceSite
NativeMethods+IOleInPlaceFrame 0 1 type 12 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleInPlaceFrame
NativeMethods+IOleInPlaceUIWindow 0 2 types 6 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleInPlaceUIWindow
NativeMethods+IDocHostUIHandler 0 1 type 15 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IDocHostUIHandler
NativeMethods+IOleInPlaceActiveObject 0 2 types 7 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleInPlaceActiveObject
NativeMethods+IOleObject 0.048 2 types 21 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleObject
NativeMethods+IOleCommandTarget 0 2 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleCommandTarget
NativeMethods+IOleDropTarget 0 2 types 4 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleDropTarget
NativeMethods+IOleDataObject 0 2 types 9 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IOleDataObject
NativeMethods+IEnumOLEVERB 0 1 type 4 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IEnumOLEVERB
NativeMethods+IAdviseSink 0 1 type 5 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IAdviseSink
NativeMethods+IHTMLBodyElement 0.014 2 types 35 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLBodyElement
NativeMethods+IPersistStreamInit 0.083 2 types 6 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IPersistStreamInit
NativeMethods+IHTMLElement2 0.0094 3 types 106 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLElement2
NativeMethods+IHTMLRectCollection 0.33 2 types 3 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLRectCollection
NativeMethods+IHTMLCurrentStyle 0 1 type 67 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLCurrentStyle
NativeMethods+IHTMLRect 0.12 2 types 8 methods System.Web.UI.Design.MobileControls .NativeMethods+IHTMLRect
IListControl 1 1 type 2 methods System.Web.UI.MobileControls .IListControl
IScriptResourceHandler 1 1 type 3 methods System.Web.Handlers .IScriptResourceHandler
IContractGeneratorReferenceTypeLoader 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.Web.Compilation.WCFModel .IContractGeneratorReferenceTypeLoader
IContractGeneratorReferenceTypeLoader2 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.Compilation.WCFModel .IContractGeneratorReferenceTypeLoader2
IClientScriptManager 0.14 5 types 7 methods System.Web.UI.IClientScriptManager
IClientUrlResolver 0.4 5 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.IClientUrlResolver
ICompilationSection 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.UI.ICompilationSection
IControl 0.25 2 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.IControl
ICustomErrorsSection 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.ICustomErrorsSection
IDeploymentSection 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.UI.IDeploymentSection
IHtmlForm 0.33 3 types 4 methods System.Web.UI.IHtmlForm
IPage 0.12 8 types 31 methods System.Web.UI.IPage
IScriptManagerInternal 0.17 4 types 12 methods System.Web.UI.IScriptManagerInternal
IDynamicQueryable 0.14 2 types 7 methods System.Web.UI.WebControls .IDynamicQueryable
ILinqToSql 0.67 1 type 6 methods System.Web.UI.WebControls.ILinqToSql
ILinqDataSourceChooseContextType 0.44 2 types 8 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceChooseContextType
ILinqDataSourceChooseContextTypePanel 0.5 2 types 4 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceChooseContextTypePanel
ILinqDataSourceConfiguration 0.5 2 types 8 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfiguration
ILinqDataSourceConfigurationPanel 0.5 2 types 8 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigurationPanel
ILinqDataSourceConfigureAdvanced 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureAdvanced
ILinqDataSourceConfigureAdvancedForm 0.33 3 types 4 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureAdvancedForm
ILinqDataSourceConfigureGroupBy 0.42 2 types 6 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureGroupBy
ILinqDataSourceConfigureGroupByPanel 0.33 3 types 7 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureGroupByPanel
ILinqDataSourceConfigureOrderBy 0.33 2 types 3 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureOrderBy
ILinqDataSourceConfigureOrderByForm 0.33 3 types 6 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureOrderByForm
ILinqDataSourceConfigureSelect 0.42 2 types 6 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureSelect
ILinqDataSourceConfigureSelectPanel 0.33 3 types 22 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureSelectPanel
ILinqDataSourceConfigureWhere 0.25 4 types 16 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureWhere
ILinqDataSourceConfigureWhereForm 0.28 4 types 15 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceConfigureWhereForm
ILinqDataSourceContextTypeItem 0.22 9 types 3 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceContextTypeItem
ILinqDataSourceDesignerHelper 0.086 13 types 67 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceDesignerHelper
ILinqDataSourceProjection 0.25 5 types 8 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceProjection
ILinqDataSourcePropertyItem 0.099 22 types 11 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourcePropertyItem
ILinqDataSourceStatementEditorForm 0.38 2 types 4 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceStatementEditorForm
ILinqDataSourceWizardForm 0.33 6 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceWizardForm
ILinqDataSourceWrapper 0.5 2 types 44 methods System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .ILinqDataSourceWrapper
IMetaChildrenColumn 0.17 1 type 6 methods System.Web.DynamicData .IMetaChildrenColumn
IMetaColumn 0.073 6 types 39 methods System.Web.DynamicData.IMetaColumn
IMetaForeignKeyColumn 0.17 2 types 9 methods System.Web.DynamicData .IMetaForeignKeyColumn
IMetaModel 0.019 3 types 18 methods System.Web.DynamicData.IMetaModel
IMetaTable 0.035 10 types 43 methods System.Web.DynamicData.IMetaTable
MetaColumn+IMetaColumnMetadata 0.37 3 types 20 methods System.Web.DynamicData .MetaColumn+IMetaColumnMetadata
IClrStrongNameUsingIntPtr 0.24 1 type 25 methods Microsoft.Runtime.Hosting .IClrStrongNameUsingIntPtr
IClrStrongName 0.36 1 type 25 methods Microsoft.Runtime.Hosting.IClrStrongName
IRequestCompletedNotifier 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Web.IRequestCompletedNotifier
IBufferAllocator 0.083 3 types 4 methods System.Web.IBufferAllocator
IBufferAllocator<T> 0.33 4 types 3 methods System.Web.IBufferAllocator<T>
IAllocatorProvider 0.25 5 types 4 methods System.Web.IAllocatorProvider
HttpApplication+IExecutionStep 0.2 5 types 3 methods System.Web .HttpApplication+IExecutionStep
IHttpResponseElement 0.83 2 types 3 methods System.Web.IHttpResponseElement
IHttpHandlerFactory2 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.IHttpHandlerFactory2
IPartitionInfo 0.25 4 types 1 method System.Web.IPartitionInfo
IAsyncAbortableWebSocket 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Web.WebSockets .IAsyncAbortableWebSocket
IWebSocketPipe 0.5 2 types 4 methods System.Web.WebSockets.IWebSocketPipe
IUnmanagedWebSocketContext 0.5 2 types 5 methods System.Web.WebSockets .IUnmanagedWebSocketContext
IPerfCounters 0.12 4 types 4 methods System.Web.Util.IPerfCounters
ISyncContextLock 0.33 3 types 1 method System.Web.Util.ISyncContextLock
ISyncContext 0.2 5 types 2 methods System.Web.Util.ISyncContext
ITypedWebObjectFactory 1 4 types 1 method System.Web.Util.ITypedWebObjectFactory
ICustomRuntimeRegistrationToken 0 2 types 1 method System.Web.Hosting .ICustomRuntimeRegistrationToken
IProcessSuspendListener 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.Hosting .IProcessSuspendListener
IProcessResumeCallback 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Web.Hosting .IProcessResumeCallback
ICustomRuntime 0 3 types 3 methods System.Web.Hosting.ICustomRuntime
IStateFormatter2 0.62 8 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.IStateFormatter2
IPageAsyncTask 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Web.UI.IPageAsyncTask
IAssemblyDependencyParser 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.UI.IAssemblyDependencyParser
IScriptResourceMapping 0.5 3 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.IScriptResourceMapping
IScriptResourceDefinition 0.33 3 types 8 methods System.Web.UI.IScriptResourceDefinition
IScriptManager 0.15 11 types 17 methods System.Web.UI.IScriptManager
ITagNameToTypeMapper 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.UI.ITagNameToTypeMapper
IRenderOuterTableControl 1 1 type 3 methods System.Web.UI.IRenderOuterTableControl
IWizardSideBarListControl 0.1 5 types 12 methods System.Web.UI.WebControls .IWizardSideBarListControl
IWebPartMenuUser 1 1 type 16 methods System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts .IWebPartMenuUser
NativeComInterfaces+IAdsPathname 0.12 3 types 11 methods System.Web.Security .NativeComInterfaces+IAdsPathname
NativeComInterfaces+IAdsLargeInteger 0.5 3 types 4 methods System.Web.Security .NativeComInterfaces+IAdsLargeInteger
IDataProtectorFactory 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Web.Security.Cryptography .IDataProtectorFactory
ICryptoServiceProvider 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.Security.Cryptography .ICryptoServiceProvider
IMasterKeyProvider 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.Web.Security.Cryptography .IMasterKeyProvider
ICryptoAlgorithmFactory 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.Web.Security.Cryptography .ICryptoAlgorithmFactory
ICryptoService 0.83 6 types 2 methods System.Web.Security.Cryptography .ICryptoService
IAssemblyCache 0.2 2 types 5 methods System.Web.Configuration.IAssemblyCache
IConfigMapPath2 0.67 2 types 3 methods System.Web.Configuration.IConfigMapPath2
IServerConfig 0.2 6 types 5 methods System.Web.Configuration.IServerConfig
IServerConfig2 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.Configuration.IServerConfig2
IDataPointCustomPropertiesProvider 1 1 type 1 method System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .IDataPointCustomPropertiesProvider
IChartElement 0.25 3 types 4 methods System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .IChartElement
INameController 0.57 1 type 7 methods System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .INameController
IChartRenderingEngine 0.93 1 type 45 methods System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .IChartRenderingEngine
IDesignerMessageBoxDialog 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .IDesignerMessageBoxDialog
IFormula 0.25 2 types 2 methods System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .Formulas.IFormula
IChartType 0.11 14 types 22 methods System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .ChartTypes.IChartType
ICircularChartType 0.17 5 types 6 methods System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .ChartTypes.ICircularChartType
IBorderType 0.3 4 types 5 methods System.Web.UI.DataVisualization.Charting .Borders3D.IBorderType
IMembershipAdapter 0.27 3 types 5 methods System.Web.Security.IMembershipAdapter
ICustomLoaderHelperFunctions 0.5 2 types 4 methods System.Web.Hosting .ICustomLoaderHelperFunctions
IPromotedEnlistment 0.089 14 types 12 methods System.Transactions.IPromotedEnlistment
IEnlistmentNotificationInternal 0.28 8 types 4 methods System.Transactions .IEnlistmentNotificationInternal
ISinglePhaseNotificationInternal 0.25 4 types 1 method System.Transactions .ISinglePhaseNotificationInternal
IVoterBallotShim 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Transactions.Oletx .IVoterBallotShim
IPhase0EnlistmentShim 0.38 4 types 2 methods System.Transactions.Oletx .IPhase0EnlistmentShim
IEnlistmentShim 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.Transactions.Oletx .IEnlistmentShim
ITransactionShim 0.25 4 types 8 methods System.Transactions.Oletx .ITransactionShim
IResourceManagerShim 0.44 3 types 3 methods System.Transactions.Oletx .IResourceManagerShim
IDtcProxyShimFactory 0.2 5 types 8 methods System.Transactions.Oletx .IDtcProxyShimFactory
ITransactionNativeInternal 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.Transactions.Oletx .ITransactionNativeInternal
IWebFaultException 1 1 type 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Web .IWebFaultException
IDuplexRouterCallback 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Routing .IDuplexRouterCallback
IRoutingClient 0.23 5 types 7 methods System.ServiceModel.Routing .IRoutingClient
IAsyncEventArgs 0.7 5 types 2 methods System.Runtime.IAsyncEventArgs
IClassFactory 0.25 2 types 2 methods IClassFactory
IOperationContractAttributeProvider 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel .IOperationContractAttributeProvider
ICatalog2 0.018 1 type 57 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .ICatalog2
ICatalogObject 0.24 3 types 7 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .ICatalogObject
ICatalogCollection 0.17 3 types 16 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .ICatalogCollection
ICreateServiceChannel 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .ICreateServiceChannel
IMoniker 0 1 type 20 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IMoniker
IParseDisplayName 0 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IParseDisplayName
IProvideChannelBuilderSettings 0.12 4 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IProvideChannelBuilderSettings
IProxyCreator 0.5 2 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IProxyCreator
IProxyManager 0 4 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IProxyManager
IProxyProvider 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IProxyProvider
IPseudoDispatch 0 1 type 2 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IPseudoDispatch
ITransactionProxy 0 1 type 7 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .ITransactionProxy
ITransactionVoterBallotAsync2 0 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .ITransactionVoterBallotAsync2
ITransactionVoterNotifyAsync2 0.4 2 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .ITransactionVoterNotifyAsync2
ITypeCacheManager 0.33 3 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .ITypeCacheManager
IPersistStream 0.2 3 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IPersistStream
IServiceThreadPoolConfig 1 1 type 2 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IServiceThreadPoolConfig
IServicePartitionConfig 1 1 type 2 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IServicePartitionConfig
IServiceSysTxnConfig 0.14 1 type 7 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IServiceSysTxnConfig
IServiceSxsConfig 1 1 type 3 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IServiceSxsConfig
IServiceTransactionConfig 0.17 1 type 6 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IServiceTransactionConfig
IServiceCall 0 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IServiceCall
IServiceActivity 0.25 2 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IServiceActivity
IComThreadingInfo 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IComThreadingInfo
IObjectContextInfo 0.3 2 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.ComIntegration .IObjectContextInfo
IContractResolver 0.2 5 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Description .IContractResolver
ServiceMetadataExtension+IHttpGetMetadat a 0 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Description .ServiceMetadataExtension+IHttpGetMetada ta
IWrappedBodyTypeGenerator 0.25 4 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Description .IWrappedBodyTypeGenerator
WbemNative+IWbemProviderInit 0 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IWbemProviderInit
WbemNative+IWbemDecoupledRegistrar 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IWbemDecoupledRegistrar
WbemNative+IWbemServices 0.022 4 types 23 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IWbemServices
WbemNative+IWbemClassObject 0.056 6 types 24 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IWbemClassObject
WbemNative+IWbemContext 0 5 types 9 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IWbemContext
WbemNative+IWbemProviderInitSink 0.5 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IWbemProviderInitSink
WbemNative+IWbemObjectSink 0.33 6 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IWbemObjectSink
WbemNative+IEnumWbemClassObject 0 2 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IEnumWbemClassObject
WbemNative+IWbemQualifierSet 0 1 type 7 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .WbemNative+IWbemQualifierSet
IWmiProvider 0.5 2 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .IWmiProvider
IWmiInstances 0.75 8 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .IWmiInstances
IWmiInstance 0.44 22 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .IWmiInstance
IWmiMethodContext 0.27 3 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .IWmiMethodContext
IWmiInstanceProvider 1 3 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Administration .IWmiInstanceProvider
IFunctionLibrary 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IFunctionLibrary
INodeCounter 0.5 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .INodeCounter
IItemComparer<K,V> 0.5 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IItemComparer<K,V>
ConcurrencyBehavior+IWaiter 0.5 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .ConcurrencyBehavior+IWaiter
IClientFaultFormatter 0.33 6 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IClientFaultFormatter
IDispatchFaultFormatter 0.22 9 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IDispatchFaultFormatter
IDispatchFaultFormatterWrapper 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IDispatchFaultFormatterWrapper
IChannelBinder 0.076 23 types 20 methods System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IChannelBinder
IListenerBinder 0.3 4 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IListenerBinder
IManualConcurrencyOperationInvoker 0.56 3 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IManualConcurrencyOperationInvoker
IInvokeReceivedNotification 0.19 8 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IInvokeReceivedNotification
IResumeMessageRpc 0.17 8 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IResumeMessageRpc
IInstanceTransaction 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IInstanceTransaction
IInstanceContextManager 0.4 1 type 10 methods System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .IInstanceContextManager
ISessionThrottleNotification 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher .ISessionThrottleNotification
IConfigurationContextProviderInternal 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Configuration .IConfigurationContextProviderInternal
ILockingQueue 1 1 type 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ILockingQueue
IChannelDemuxer 1 2 types 7 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IChannelDemuxer
IChannelDemuxFailureHandler 0.16 11 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IChannelDemuxFailureHandler
IChannelAcceptor<TChannel> 0 12 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IChannelAcceptor<TChannel>
IRequestReplyCorrelator 0.17 6 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IRequestReplyCorrelator
ICorrelatorKey 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ICorrelatorKey
ICommunicationWaiter 0.75 2 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ICommunicationWaiter
RemoteEndpointMessageProperty+IRemoteEnd pointProvider 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .RemoteEndpointMessageProperty+IRemoteEn dpointProvider
IRequestBase 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IRequestBase
IRequest 0 3 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels.IRequest
IAsyncRequest 0 3 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IAsyncRequest
IConnectionOrientedListenerSettings 0 5 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IConnectionOrientedListenerSettings
ITransportFactorySettings 0.2 16 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ITransportFactorySettings
IConnectionOrientedTransportFactorySetti ngs 0.092 19 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IConnectionOrientedTransportFactorySett ings
IConnectionOrientedTransportChannelFacto rySettings 0 6 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IConnectionOrientedTransportChannelFact orySettings
ITcpChannelFactorySettings 0.5 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .ITcpChannelFactorySettings
IHttpTransportFactorySettings 0.042 12 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IHttpTransportFactorySettings
IPipeTransportFactorySettings 0.33 3 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPipeTransportFactorySettings
ITransportManagerRegistration 0 7 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ITransportManagerRegistration
IChannelBindingProvider 0.5 11 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IChannelBindingProvider
IStreamUpgradeChannelBindingProvider 0.5 6 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IStreamUpgradeChannelBindingProvider
IConnection 0.078 62 types 19 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels.IConnection
IConnectionInitiator 0.095 7 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IConnectionInitiator
IConnectionListener 0.12 8 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IConnectionListener
IMessageSource 0.14 7 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IMessageSource
ISingletonChannelListener 0.14 7 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ISingletonChannelListener
ISocketListenerSettings 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ISocketListenerSettings
HttpChannelListener+IHttpAuthenticationC ontext 0.38 2 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .HttpChannelListener+IHttpAuthentication Context
HttpRequestMessageProperty+IHttpHeaderPr ovider 0.25 4 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .HttpRequestMessageProperty+IHttpHeaderP rovider
IWebMessageEncoderHelper 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .IWebMessageEncoderHelper
ITransportPolicyImport 1 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .ITransportPolicyImport
IPoisonHandlingStrategy 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPoisonHandlingStrategy
IMsmqMessagePool 0.25 4 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IMsmqMessagePool
IPostRollbackErrorStrategy 1 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPostRollbackErrorStrategy
MsmqUri+IAddressTranslator 0.29 26 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .MsmqUri+IAddressTranslator
IReliableChannelBinder 0.07 47 types 36 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IReliableChannelBinder
IClientReliableChannelBinder 0.083 16 types 9 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IClientReliableChannelBinder
IServerReliableChannelBinder 0.12 24 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IServerReliableChannelBinder
IReliableFactorySettings 0.19 10 types 10 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IReliableFactorySettings
DatagramAdapter+DatagramAdapterListenerB ase<TChannel,TSessionChannel,ItemType >+IWaiter 0 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .DatagramAdapter+DatagramAdapterListener Base<TChannel,TSessionChannel,ItemType >+IWaiter
IMergeEnabledMessageProperty 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .IMergeEnabledMessageProperty
IBufferedMessageData 0.27 10 types 9 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IBufferedMessageData
ICompressedMessageEncoder 0.67 4 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ICompressedMessageEncoder
ITransportCompressionSupport 0.33 3 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Channels .ITransportCompressionSupport
IPeerNeighbor 0.11 18 types 18 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPeerNeighbor
IPeerFactory 0.28 4 types 8 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPeerFactory
IFlooderForThrottle 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IFlooderForThrottle
IPeerMaintainer 1 1 type 17 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPeerMaintainer
IConnectAlgorithms 1 1 type 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IConnectAlgorithms
IPeerNodeMessageHandling 0.071 6 types 7 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPeerNodeMessageHandling
IPeerConnectorContract 0.5 2 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPeerConnectorContract
IPeerFlooderContract<TFloodContract ,TLinkContract> 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPeerFlooderContract<TFloodContract ,TLinkContract>
IPeerServiceContract 0.2 1 type 10 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IPeerServiceContract
ITransactionChannel 0.25 1 type 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .ITransactionChannel
WSTrustDec2005+DriverDec2005+IWsTrustDec 2005SecurityTokenService 0 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Security .WSTrustDec2005+DriverDec2005+IWsTrustDe c2005SecurityTokenService
WSTrustFeb2005+DriverFeb2005+IWsTrustFeb 2005SecurityTokenService 0 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Security .WSTrustFeb2005+DriverFeb2005+IWsTrustFe b2005SecurityTokenService
IChannelSecureConversationSessionSetting s 0 1 type 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Security .IChannelSecureConversationSessionSettin gs
IListenerSecureConversationSessionSettin gs 0 1 type 12 methods System.ServiceModel.Security .IListenerSecureConversationSessionSetti ngs
ISecurityCommunicationObject 1 1 type 14 methods System.ServiceModel.Security .ISecurityCommunicationObject
TimeBoundedCache+IExpirableItem 0.5 4 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Security .TimeBoundedCache+IExpirableItem
ISecurityContextSecurityTokenCacheProvid er 1 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Security.Tokens .ISecurityContextSecurityTokenCacheProvi der
IAspNetMessageProperty 0.17 6 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Activation .IAspNetMessageProperty
IConnectionDuplicator 1 1 type 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Activation .IConnectionDuplicator
IConnectionRegister 0.67 1 type 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Activation .IConnectionRegister
IConnectionRegisterAsync 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.ServiceModel.Activation .IConnectionRegisterAsync
ListenerUnsafeNativeMethods+ICorRuntimeH ost 0.045 2 types 11 methods System.ServiceModel.Activation .ListenerUnsafeNativeMethods+ICorRuntime Host
IAnnouncementInnerClient 0.25 4 types 19 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .IAnnouncementInnerClient
IAnnouncementServiceImplementation 0 6 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .IAnnouncementServiceImplementation
IDiscoveryInnerClient 0.25 4 types 12 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .IDiscoveryInnerClient
IDiscoveryInnerClientResponse 0.42 8 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .IDiscoveryInnerClientResponse
IDiscoveryServiceImplementation 0 10 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .IDiscoveryServiceImplementation
IDiscoveryVersionImplementation 0.14 10 types 11 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .IDiscoveryVersionImplementation
IMulticastSuppressionImplementation 0 6 types 4 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .IMulticastSuppressionImplementation
IAnnouncementContractCD1 0.5 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery.VersionCD1 .IAnnouncementContractCD1
IDiscoveryContractAdhocCD1 0.33 3 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery.VersionCD1 .IDiscoveryContractAdhocCD1
IDiscoveryContractManagedCD1 0.5 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery.VersionCD1 .IDiscoveryContractManagedCD1
IDiscoveryResponseContractCD1 0.67 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery.VersionCD1 .IDiscoveryResponseContractCD1
IAnnouncementContractApril2005 0.5 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .VersionApril2005 .IAnnouncementContractApril2005
IDiscoveryContractApril2005 1 1 type 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .VersionApril2005 .IDiscoveryContractApril2005
IDiscoveryResponseContractApril2005 0.67 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery .VersionApril2005 .IDiscoveryResponseContractApril2005
IAnnouncementContract11 0.5 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery.Version11 .IAnnouncementContract11
IDiscoveryContractAdhoc11 0.33 3 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery.Version11 .IDiscoveryContractAdhoc11
IDiscoveryContractManaged11 0.5 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery.Version11 .IDiscoveryContractManaged11
IDiscoveryResponseContract11 0.67 2 types 6 methods System.ServiceModel.Discovery.Version11 .IDiscoveryResponseContract11
IUdpReceiveHandler 1 1 type 3 methods System.ServiceModel.Channels .IUdpReceiveHandler
IServiceModelActivationHandler 0.5 2 types 1 method System.ServiceModel.Activation .IServiceModelActivationHandler
IMSAdminBase 0.097 1 type 31 methods System.ServiceModel.Activation .IMSAdminBase
ICanonicalizableNode 0.33 3 types 4 methods System.Security.Cryptography.Xml .ICanonicalizableNode
IStorageFolderHandleAccess 1 1 type 1 method System.IO.IStorageFolderHandleAccess
IStorageItemHandleAccess 1 1 type 1 method System.IO.IStorageItemHandleAccess
IDispatcherQueue 0.17 2 types 3 methods System.Threading.IDispatcherQueue
IBufferByteAccess 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IBufferByteAccess
IRestrictedErrorInfo 1 1 type 2 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IRestrictedErrorInfo
ISerParser 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters .Soap.ISerParser
IDataNode 0.15 10 types 18 methods System.Runtime.Serialization.IDataNode
IGenericNameProvider 0 2 types 6 methods System.Runtime.Serialization .IGenericNameProvider
IByteBufferPool 0.23 15 types 2 methods System.IO.IByteBufferPool
WsdlParser+IDump 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.Remoting.MetadataServices .WsdlParser+IDump
WsdlParser+INamespaces 0 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.Remoting.MetadataServices .WsdlParser+INamespaces
ICancelable 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.ICancelable
IPersistencePipelineModule 0.16 8 types 11 methods System.Runtime .IPersistencePipelineModule
IDurableInstancingOptions 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.DurableInstancing .IDurableInstancingOptions
IPersistStream 0 2 types 5 methods System.Messaging.Interop.IPersistStream
IPersistStreamInit 0.17 1 type 6 methods System.Messaging.Interop .IPersistStreamInit
IStream 0 2 types 11 methods System.Messaging.Interop.IStream
ITransaction 0.17 4 types 3 methods System.Messaging.Interop.ITransaction
IWbemPathKeyList 0.2 1 type 10 methods WmiNative.IWbemPathKeyList
IWbemPath 0.15 1 type 26 methods WmiNative.IWbemPath
IWbemDecoupledRegistrar 1 1 type 2 methods WmiNative.IWbemDecoupledRegistrar
IWbemServices 0.043 1 type 23 methods WmiNative.IWbemServices
IWbemClassObject 0.065 7 types 24 methods WmiNative.IWbemClassObject
IWbemContext 0 4 types 9 methods WmiNative.IWbemContext
IWbemProviderInitSink 0.5 2 types 1 method WmiNative.IWbemProviderInitSink
IWbemObjectSink 0.33 3 types 2 methods WmiNative.IWbemObjectSink
IEnumWbemClassObject 0 2 types 5 methods WmiNative.IEnumWbemClassObject
IWbemQualifierSet 0.14 1 type 7 methods WmiNative.IWbemQualifierSet
ICIMResultHandler 0.2 3 types 5 methods System.Management.Instrumentation .ICIMResultHandler
ICIMQuery 0 1 type 1 method System.Management.Instrumentation .ICIMQuery
ICIMEnumerate 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Management.Instrumentation .ICIMEnumerate
ICIMGet 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Management.Instrumentation .ICIMGet
ICIMDelete 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Management.Instrumentation .ICIMDelete
ICIMUpdate 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Management.Instrumentation .ICIMUpdate
ICIMExecute 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Management.Instrumentation .ICIMExecute
ICIMCapabilities 0.83 1 type 6 methods System.Management.Instrumentation .ICIMCapabilities
IWbemClassObject_DoNotMarshal 0 5 types 24 methods System.Management .IWbemClassObject_DoNotMarshal
IWbemLocator 0 1 type 1 method System.Management.IWbemLocator
IWbemContext 0.014 16 types 9 methods System.Management.IWbemContext
IWbemServices 0.041 19 types 23 methods System.Management.IWbemServices
IWbemCallResult 0.5 1 type 4 methods System.Management.IWbemCallResult
IWbemObjectSink 0.11 9 types 2 methods System.Management.IWbemObjectSink
IEnumWbemClassObject 0.053 15 types 5 methods System.Management.IEnumWbemClassObject
IWbemObjectTextSrc 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.Management.IWbemObjectTextSrc
IWbemStatusCodeText 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.Management.IWbemStatusCodeText
IWbemProviderInitSink 1 1 type 1 method System.Management.IWbemProviderInitSink
IWbemDecoupledRegistrar 1 1 type 2 methods System.Management .IWbemDecoupledRegistrar
IWbemPathKeyList 0.2 1 type 10 methods System.Management.IWbemPathKeyList
IWbemPath 0.46 1 type 26 methods System.Management.IWbemPath
IMetaDataDispenser 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.Management.Instrumentation .IMetaDataDispenser
IMetaDataImportInternalOnly 0.12 1 type 8 methods System.Management.Instrumentation .IMetaDataImportInternalOnly
ILog 1 1 type 7 methods System.IO.Log.ILog
IFileBasedLogInit 1 1 type 1 method System.IO.Log.IFileBasedLogInit
ISspiNegotiation 0.1 11 types 8 methods System.ServiceModel.Security .ISspiNegotiation
ISspiNegotiationInfo 1 1 type 1 method System.ServiceModel.Security .ISspiNegotiationInfo
IPrefixGenerator 0 2 types 1 method System.IdentityModel.IPrefixGenerator
ISecurityElement 0.29 7 types 3 methods System.IdentityModel.ISecurityElement
ISignatureValueSecurityElement 0 5 types 1 method System.IdentityModel .ISignatureValueSecurityElement
ICanonicalWriterEndRootElementCallback 1 1 type 1 method System.IdentityModel .ICanonicalWriterEndRootElementCallback
IIdentityInfo 1 1 type 1 method System.IdentityModel.Policy .IIdentityInfo
IClrStrongNameUsingIntPtr 0.24 1 type 25 methods Microsoft.Runtime.Hosting .IClrStrongNameUsingIntPtr
IClrStrongName 0.36 1 type 25 methods Microsoft.Runtime.Hosting.IClrStrongName
IGetContextProperties 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.EnterpriseServices .IGetContextProperties
IContextProperties 0.2 1 type 5 methods System.EnterpriseServices .IContextProperties
IObjectConstruct 0 1 type 1 method System.EnterpriseServices .IObjectConstruct
IObjectConstructString 1 2 types 1 method System.EnterpriseServices .IObjectConstructString
IObjectContext 0.12 2 types 8 methods System.EnterpriseServices.IObjectContext
IObjectContextInfo 0.4 1 type 5 methods System.EnterpriseServices .IObjectContextInfo
IObjectContextInfo2 0.38 1 type 8 methods System.EnterpriseServices .IObjectContextInfo2
IObjectControl 0 2 types 3 methods System.EnterpriseServices.IObjectControl
ITransactionProxy 0 1 type 7 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ITransactionProxy
ITransactionVoterBallotAsync2 0 1 type 1 method System.EnterpriseServices .ITransactionVoterBallotAsync2
ITransactionVoterNotifyAsync2 0.4 2 types 5 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ITransactionVoterNotifyAsync2
ISharedProperty 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ISharedProperty
ISharedPropertyGroup 0.5 2 types 4 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ISharedPropertyGroup
ISharedPropertyGroupManager 1 1 type 3 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ISharedPropertyGroupManager
IManagedObject 0 3 types 2 methods System.EnterpriseServices.IManagedObject
IContext 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.EnterpriseServices.IContext
IManagedObjectInfo 0 1 type 4 methods System.EnterpriseServices .IManagedObjectInfo
ITransactionProperty 0.077 1 type 13 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ITransactionProperty
ISecurityCallersColl 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ISecurityCallersColl
ISecurityIdentityColl 0.11 3 types 3 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ISecurityIdentityColl
ISecurityCallContext 0.33 2 types 6 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ISecurityCallContext
IConfigurationAttribute 0.83 2 types 3 methods System.EnterpriseServices .IConfigurationAttribute
ICreateTypeLib 0.1 1 type 10 methods System.EnterpriseServices.ICreateTypeLib
IConfigCallback 1 1 type 6 methods System.EnterpriseServices .IConfigCallback
ITransactionResourcePool 1 1 type 2 methods System.EnterpriseServices .ITransactionResourcePool
ICreateWithTipTransactionEx 1 1 type 1 method System.EnterpriseServices .ICreateWithTipTransactionEx
ICreateWithTransactionEx 1 1 type 1 method System.EnterpriseServices .ICreateWithTransactionEx
ICreateWithLocalTransaction 1 1 type 1 method System.EnterpriseServices .ICreateWithLocalTransaction
IAssemblyCache 0.4 1 type 5 methods System.EnterpriseServices.Internal .IAssemblyCache
ITypeLib2 0.071 1 type 14 methods System.EnterpriseServices.Internal .ITypeLib2
IFormatLogRecords 1 1 type 3 methods System.EnterpriseServices .CompensatingResourceManager .IFormatLogRecords
_IMonitorClerks 0.43 2 types 7 methods System.EnterpriseServices .CompensatingResourceManager ._IMonitorClerks
ICatalog 0.12 1 type 26 methods System.EnterpriseServices.Admin.ICatalog
ICatalogObject 0.21 29 types 7 methods System.EnterpriseServices.Admin .ICatalogObject
ICatalogCollection 0.26 7 types 16 methods System.EnterpriseServices.Admin .ICatalogCollection
IThunkInstallation 1 1 type 1 method System.EnterpriseServices.Thunk .IThunkInstallation
IProxyInvoke 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.EnterpriseServices.Thunk .IProxyInvoke
IDispatch 0.21 6 types 4 methods System.Dynamic.IDispatch
IProvideClassInfo 1 1 type 1 method System.Dynamic.IProvideClassInfo
ISystemColorTracker 1 1 type 1 method System.Drawing.Internal .ISystemColorTracker
UnsafeNativeMethods+IMarshal 0 1 type 6 methods Microsoft.Win32 .UnsafeNativeMethods+IMarshal
IInternetSecurityManager 0.12 2 types 8 methods Microsoft.Win32.IInternetSecurityManager
IAuthenticationManager 1 1 type 14 methods System.Net.IAuthenticationManager
IWebProxyFinder 1 1 type 4 methods System.Net.IWebProxyFinder
IRequestLifetimeTracker 1 1 type 1 method System.Net.IRequestLifetimeTracker
ISessionAuthenticationModule 0.67 1 type 3 methods System.Net.ISessionAuthenticationModule
ICloseEx 1 6 types 1 method System.Net.ICloseEx
SSPIInterface 0.2 5 types 21 methods System.Net.SSPIInterface
IAutoWebProxy 1 1 type 1 method System.Net.IAutoWebProxy
IEncodableStream 0.42 3 types 4 methods System.Net.Mime.IEncodableStream
IMSAdminBase 0.13 1 type 31 methods System.Net.Mail.IMSAdminBase
ISmtpAuthenticationModule 0.4 5 types 3 methods System.Net.Mail .ISmtpAuthenticationModule
INotifyCollectionChangedEventArgs 1 1 type 5 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime .INotifyCollectionChangedEventArgs
IPropertyChangedEventArgs 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime .IPropertyChangedEventArgs
INotifyCollectionChanged_WinRT 1 1 type 2 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime .INotifyCollectionChanged_WinRT
INotifyPropertyChanged_WinRT 1 1 type 2 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime .INotifyPropertyChanged_WinRT
ICommand_WinRT 1 1 type 4 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.ICommand_WinRT
IDeflater 1 1 type 4 methods System.IO.Compression.IDeflater
IInflater 0.6 1 type 5 methods System.IO.Compression.IInflater
IFileFormatWriter 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.IO.Compression.IFileFormatWriter
IFileFormatReader 0.33 3 types 4 methods System.IO.Compression.IFileFormatReader
NativeComInterfaces+IAdsPathname 0.21 7 types 11 methods System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory .NativeComInterfaces+IAdsPathname
NativeComInterfaces+IAdsProperty 0.042 2 types 24 methods System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory .NativeComInterfaces+IAdsProperty
NativeComInterfaces+IAdsClass 0.058 2 types 43 methods System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory .NativeComInterfaces+IAdsClass
ILocationReport 0.67 1 type 3 methods System.Device.Location.Internal .ILocationReport
ILatLongReport 0.62 1 type 8 methods System.Device.Location.Internal .ILatLongReport
ILocation 0.67 1 type 9 methods System.Device.Location.Internal .ILocation
IWizardStepEditableRegion 1 2 types 1 method System.Web.UI.Design.WebControls .IWizardStepEditableRegion
IDesignConnection 0.046 14 types 14 methods System.Data.Design.IDesignConnection
IDataSourceNamedObject 0 5 types 1 method System.Data.Design .IDataSourceNamedObject
IDataSourceXmlSerializable 1 1 type 2 methods System.Data.Design .IDataSourceXmlSerializable
IDataSourceXmlSpecialOwner 1 1 type 2 methods System.Data.Design .IDataSourceXmlSpecialOwner
IDataSourceInitAfterLoading 1 1 type 1 method System.Data.Design .IDataSourceInitAfterLoading
INamedObject 0.5 4 types 2 methods System.Data.Design.INamedObject
INamedObjectCollection 0 3 types 1 method System.Data.Design .INamedObjectCollection
INameService 0.083 8 types 6 methods System.Data.Design.INameService
IEventHandlerService 0.18 11 types 6 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .IEventHandlerService
IMenuStatusHandler 1 1 type 2 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .IMenuStatusHandler
IMouseHandler 0.5 2 types 6 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .IMouseHandler
IOleDragClient 0.33 4 types 6 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .IOleDragClient
IOverlayService 0.32 5 types 5 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .IOverlayService
ISelectionUIHandler 0.5 2 types 13 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .ISelectionUIHandler
ISelectionUIService 0.11 5 types 20 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .ISelectionUIService
ISplitWindowService 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .ISplitWindowService
ISupportInSituService 0.33 3 types 3 methods System.Windows.Forms.Design .ISupportInSituService
IClrStrongNameUsingIntPtr 0.24 1 type 25 methods Microsoft.Runtime.Hosting .IClrStrongNameUsingIntPtr
IClrStrongName 0.36 1 type 25 methods Microsoft.Runtime.Hosting.IClrStrongName
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_INSTALLATION_REFEREN CE 0 1 type 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_INSTALLATION_REFERE NCE
IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA
IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA_PROPERTY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA_PROPERTY
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_FILE 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_FILE
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_SUBCATEGORY 0.25 2 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_SUBCATEGORY
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_INSTANCE 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_INSTANCE
IReferenceIdentity 0.12 13 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IReferenceIdentity
IDefinitionIdentity 0.083 18 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IDefinitionIdentity
IEnumIDENTITY_ATTRIBUTE 0.2 2 types 5 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumIDENTITY_ATTRIBUTE
IEnumDefinitionIdentity 0.25 4 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumDefinitionIdentity
IEnumReferenceIdentity 0.25 2 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumReferenceIdentity
IDefinitionAppId 0.083 20 types 6 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IDefinitionAppId
IReferenceAppId 0.2 5 types 5 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IReferenceAppId
IIdentityAuthority 0.22 3 types 18 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IIdentityAuthority
IAppIdAuthority 0.16 2 types 16 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IAppIdAuthority
IStore 0.19 5 types 20 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IStore
IManifestParseErrorCallback 0 2 types 1 method System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IManifestParseErrorCallback
IManifestInformation 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IManifestInformation
IActContext 0.22 3 types 18 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IActContext
IStateManager 0.25 1 type 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IStateManager
ISection 0.21 7 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISection
ISectionWithStringKey 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISectionWithStringKey
ISectionWithReferenceIdentityKey 1 1 type 1 method System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISectionWithReferenceIdentityKey
ISectionEntry 0 1 type 2 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISectionEntry
IEnumUnknown 0.25 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumUnknown
ICMS 0.064 5 types 22 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.ICMS
IHashElementEntry 0.14 2 types 7 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IHashElementEntry
IFileEntry 0.067 1 type 15 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IFileEntry
IFileAssociationEntry 0.17 1 type 6 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IFileAssociationEntry
IAssemblyReferenceEntry 0.25 1 type 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IAssemblyReferenceEntry
IEntryPointEntry 0.17 1 type 6 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IEntryPointEntry
IDescriptionMetadataEntry 0.14 1 type 7 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IDescriptionMetadataEntry
IDeploymentMetadataEntry 0.17 1 type 6 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IDeploymentMetadataEntry
IDependentOSMetadataEntry 0.12 1 type 8 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IDependentOSMetadataEntry
ICompatibleFrameworksMetadataEntry 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest .ICompatibleFrameworksMetadataEntry
IMetadataSectionEntry 0.33 1 type 21 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IMetadataSectionEntry
ICompatibleFrameworkEntry 0.2 1 type 5 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.ICompatibleFrameworkEntry
IManagedDeploymentServiceCom 0 2 types 7 methods System.Deployment.Application .IManagedDeploymentServiceCom
IDownloadNotification 0 2 types 2 methods System.Deployment.Application .IDownloadNotification
IMetaDataDispenser 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.Deployment.Application .IMetaDataDispenser
IMetaDataImport 0 1 type 62 methods System.Deployment.Application .IMetaDataImport
IMetaDataAssemblyImport 0.5 1 type 14 methods System.Deployment.Application .IMetaDataAssemblyImport
NativeMethods+IAssemblyCache 0.05 4 types 5 methods System.Deployment.Application .NativeMethods+IAssemblyCache
NativeMethods+IAssemblyEnum 0.17 2 types 3 methods System.Deployment.Application .NativeMethods+IAssemblyEnum
NativeMethods+IApplicationContext 0 2 types 5 methods System.Deployment.Application .NativeMethods+IApplicationContext
NativeMethods+IAssemblyName 0 2 types 9 methods System.Deployment.Application .NativeMethods+IAssemblyName
NativeMethods+ICorRuntimeHost 0.026 2 types 19 methods System.Deployment.Application .NativeMethods+ICorRuntimeHost
ISourceLineInfo 0.22 18 types 4 methods System.Xml.Xsl.ISourceLineInfo
IErrorHelper 0.38 4 types 2 methods System.Xml.Xsl.IErrorHelper
IXPathBuilder<Node> 0.6 3 types 10 methods System.Xml.Xsl.XPath.IXPathBuilder<Node>
IFocus 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.Xml.Xsl.XPath.IFocus
IXPathEnvironment 0.38 2 types 4 methods System.Xml.Xsl.XPath.IXPathEnvironment
IQilAnnotation 1 1 type 1 method System.Xml.Xsl.Qil.IQilAnnotation
RecordOutput 0.2 5 types 2 methods System.Xml.Xsl.XsltOld.RecordOutput
IStackFrame 0 1 type 5 methods System.Xml.Xsl.XsltOld.Debugger .IStackFrame
IXsltProcessor 0 1 type 2 methods System.Xml.Xsl.XsltOld.Debugger .IXsltProcessor
IXsltDebugger 0.12 8 types 3 methods System.Xml.Xsl.XsltOld.Debugger .IXsltDebugger
IDataService 0.12 28 types 15 methods System.Data.Services.IDataService
IProjectedResult 0.5 2 types 2 methods System.Data.Services.IProjectedResult
OperationSignatures+ILogicalSignatures 0 2 types 3 methods System.Data.Services.Parsing .OperationSignatures+ILogicalSignatures
OperationSignatures+IArithmeticSignature s 0 2 types 11 methods System.Data.Services.Parsing .OperationSignatures+IArithmeticSignatur es
OperationSignatures+IRelationalSignature s 0 2 types 9 methods System.Data.Services.Parsing .OperationSignatures+IRelationalSignatur es
OperationSignatures+INegationSignatures 0 2 types 11 methods System.Data.Services.Parsing .OperationSignatures+INegationSignatures
OperationSignatures+INotSignatures 0 2 types 3 methods System.Data.Services.Parsing .OperationSignatures+INotSignatures
OperationSignatures+IEnumerableSignature s 0 1 type 28 methods System.Data.Services.Parsing .OperationSignatures+IEnumerableSignatur es
IExceptionWriter 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Data.Services.Serializers .IExceptionWriter
IProjectionProvider 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Data.Services.Providers .IProjectionProvider
IDataServices 0.21 8 types 7 methods System.Data.Linq.Provider.IDataServices
IDeferredSourceFactory 0.25 2 types 2 methods System.Data.Linq.Provider .IDeferredSourceFactory
IProvider 0.14 10 types 18 methods System.Data.Linq.Provider.IProvider
ICompiledQuery 0.67 3 types 1 method System.Data.Linq.Provider.ICompiledQuery
IConnectionManager 0.25 2 types 2 methods System.Data.Linq.SqlClient .IConnectionManager
IConnectionUser 1 1 type 1 method System.Data.Linq.SqlClient .IConnectionUser
IObjectReader 0.33 3 types 1 method System.Data.Linq.SqlClient.IObjectReader
IObjectReaderSession 0.17 6 types 2 methods System.Data.Linq.SqlClient .IObjectReaderSession
IReaderProvider 0.17 3 types 2 methods System.Data.Linq.SqlClient .IReaderProvider
IObjectReaderFactory 0.14 7 types 2 methods System.Data.Linq.SqlClient .IObjectReaderFactory
IObjectReaderCompiler 1 1 type 2 methods System.Data.Linq.SqlClient .IObjectReaderCompiler
ICompiledSubQuery 0 6 types 1 method System.Data.Linq.SqlClient .ICompiledSubQuery
IEntityStateManager 0.3 4 types 5 methods System.Data.IEntityStateManager
IEntityStateEntry 0.11 25 types 14 methods System.Data.IEntityStateEntry
IEntityAdapter 0.33 3 types 7 methods System.Data.IEntityAdapter
ISqlFragment 0.33 3 types 1 method System.Data.SqlClient.SqlGen .ISqlFragment
IDbSpatialValue 0.5 4 types 8 methods System.Data.SqlClient.Internal .IDbSpatialValue
IObjectView 1 1 type 2 methods System.Data.Objects.IObjectView
IObjectViewData<T> 0.33 3 types 13 methods System.Data.Objects.IObjectViewData<T>
IChangeTrackingStrategy 0 4 types 4 methods System.Data.Objects.Internal .IChangeTrackingStrategy
IEntityKeyStrategy 0 4 types 3 methods System.Data.Objects.Internal .IEntityKeyStrategy
IPropertyAccessorStrategy 0 4 types 5 methods System.Data.Objects.Internal .IPropertyAccessorStrategy
IEntityWrapper 0.13 21 types 29 methods System.Data.Objects.Internal .IEntityWrapper
IRelationshipFixer 0.33 3 types 1 method System.Data.Objects.DataClasses .IRelationshipFixer
IBaseList<T> 0.18 19 types 3 methods System.Data.Metadata.Edm.IBaseList<T>
ITileQuery 1 1 type 1 method System.Data.Mapping.ViewGeneration .QueryRewriting.ITileQuery
IRelationship 0.24 9 types 7 methods System.Data.EntityModel .SchemaObjectModel.IRelationship
IRelationshipEnd 0.3 10 types 5 methods System.Data.EntityModel .SchemaObjectModel.IRelationshipEnd
ISchemaElementLookUpTable<T> 0.25 4 types 5 methods System.Data.EntityModel .SchemaObjectModel .ISchemaElementLookUpTable<T>
IGroupExpressionExtendedInfo 1 1 type 2 methods System.Data.Common.EntitySql .IGroupExpressionExtendedInfo
IGetAlternativeName 1 1 type 1 method System.Data.Common.EntitySql .IGetAlternativeName
ITypedGetters 0 3 types 35 methods Microsoft.SqlServer.Server.ITypedGetters
ITypedGettersV3 0.11 10 types 17 methods Microsoft.SqlServer.Server .ITypedGettersV3
ITypedSettersV3 0.2 5 types 17 methods Microsoft.SqlServer.Server .ITypedSettersV3
IXmlDataVirtualNode 0.75 1 type 4 methods System.Xml.IXmlDataVirtualNode
IFilter 0.11 9 types 1 method System.Data.IFilter
NativeMethods+ISourcesRowset 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Data.Common .NativeMethods+ISourcesRowset
NativeMethods+ITransactionJoin 0.17 3 types 2 methods System.Data.Common .NativeMethods+ITransactionJoin
UnsafeNativeMethods+ADORecordConstructio n 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+ADORecordConstructi on
UnsafeNativeMethods+ADORecordsetConstruc tion 0.33 2 types 3 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+ADORecordsetConstru ction
UnsafeNativeMethods+Recordset15 0.027 2 types 55 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+Recordset15
UnsafeNativeMethods+_ADORecord 0.031 2 types 16 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+_ADORecord
UnsafeNativeMethods+IAccessor 0.1 5 types 4 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IAccessor
UnsafeNativeMethods+IChapteredRowset 0.25 2 types 2 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IChapteredRowset
UnsafeNativeMethods+IColumnsInfo 0.33 3 types 1 method System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IColumnsInfo
UnsafeNativeMethods+IColumnsRowset 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IColumnsRowset
UnsafeNativeMethods+ICommandPrepare 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+ICommandPrepare
UnsafeNativeMethods+ICommandProperties 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+ICommandProperties
UnsafeNativeMethods+ICommandText 0.15 4 types 5 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+ICommandText
UnsafeNativeMethods+ICommandWithParamete rs 0.17 2 types 3 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+ICommandWithParamet ers
UnsafeNativeMethods+IDBInfo 0.25 4 types 2 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IDBInfo
UnsafeNativeMethods+IDBProperties 0.14 7 types 3 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IDBProperties
UnsafeNativeMethods+IDBSchemaRowset 0.2 5 types 2 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IDBSchemaRowset
UnsafeNativeMethods+IErrorInfo 0.21 8 types 3 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IErrorInfo
UnsafeNativeMethods+IErrorRecords 0.17 3 types 6 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IErrorRecords
UnsafeNativeMethods+IMultipleResults 0.33 3 types 1 method System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IMultipleResults
UnsafeNativeMethods+IOpenRowset 0.33 3 types 1 method System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IOpenRowset
UnsafeNativeMethods+IRow 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IRow
UnsafeNativeMethods+IRowset 0.2 3 types 5 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IRowset
UnsafeNativeMethods+IRowsetInfo 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+IRowsetInfo
UnsafeNativeMethods+ISQLErrorInfo 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+ISQLErrorInfo
UnsafeNativeMethods+ITransactionLocal 0.05 4 types 5 methods System.Data.Common .UnsafeNativeMethods+ITransactionLocal
ICngSymmetricAlgorithm 1 1 type 13 methods Internal.Cryptography .ICngSymmetricAlgorithm
IIListProvider<TElement> 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.Linq.IIListProvider<TElement>
IParallelPartitionable<T> 1 1 type 1 method System.Linq.Parallel .IParallelPartitionable<T>
IMergeHelper<TInputOutput> 1 1 type 3 methods System.Linq.Parallel.IMergeHelper <TInputOutput>
IPartitionedStreamRecipient<TElement> 0.94 34 types 1 method System.Linq.Parallel .IPartitionedStreamRecipient<TElement>
IAttributedImport 0.33 3 types 6 methods System.ComponentModel.Composition .IAttributedImport
IReflectionPartCreationInfo 0.33 3 types 8 methods System.ComponentModel.Composition .ReflectionModel .IReflectionPartCreationInfo
IPartCreatorImportDefinition 1 5 types 1 method System.ComponentModel.Composition .Primitives.IPartCreatorImportDefinition
FilteredCatalog+IComposablePartCatalogTr aversal 1 1 type 2 methods System.ComponentModel.Composition .Hosting .FilteredCatalog+IComposablePartCatalogT raversal
IActivityDelegateFactory 1 1 type 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation .IActivityDelegateFactory
IExpandChild 0 1 type 1 method System.Activities.Presentation .IExpandChild
IAutoSplitContainer 1 1 type 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation .FreeFormEditing.IAutoSplitContainer
INestedFreeFormPanelContainer 0.75 2 types 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation .FreeFormEditing .INestedFreeFormPanelContainer
IAutoConnectContainer 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation .FreeFormEditing.IAutoConnectContainer
IAnnotationVisualProvider 0.25 4 types 3 methods System.Activities.Presentation .Annotations.IAnnotationVisualProvider
IAnnotationIndicator 0.2 5 types 4 methods System.Activities.Presentation .Annotations.IAnnotationIndicator
IDockedAnnotation 0.25 4 types 5 methods System.Activities.Presentation .Annotations.IDockedAnnotation
IFloatingAnnotation 0.23 4 types 13 methods System.Activities.Presentation .Annotations.IFloatingAnnotation
IValidationErrorSourceLocator 0.33 3 types 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation .Validation .IValidationErrorSourceLocator
IItemsCollection 0.5 1 type 4 methods System.Activities.Presentation.Model .IItemsCollection
IModelTreeItem 0.14 27 types 12 methods System.Activities.Presentation.Model .IModelTreeItem
IPropertyViewManager 0.22 3 types 6 methods System.Activities.Presentation.Internal .PropertyEditing.Views .IPropertyViewManager
ISelectionPathInterpreter 1 1 type 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation.Internal .PropertyEditing.Selection .ISelectionPathInterpreter
ISelectionStop 0.27 6 types 5 methods System.Activities.Presentation.Internal .PropertyEditing.Selection .ISelectionStop
IStateContainer 1 1 type 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation.Internal .PropertyEditing.State.IStateContainer
IAutomationFocusChangedEventSource 1 2 types 1 method System.Activities.Presentation.Internal .PropertyEditing.Automation .IAutomationFocusChangedEventSource
IMessageLogger 0.22 3 types 3 methods System.Activities.Presentation.Internal .PropertyEditing.FromExpression .Framework.IMessageLogger
IIconProvider 1 1 type 1 method System.Activities.Presentation.Internal .PropertyEditing.FromExpression .Framework.ValueEditors.IIconProvider
IPropertyInspector 0.25 2 types 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation.Internal .PropertyEditing.FromExpression .Framework.PropertyInspector .IPropertyInspector
IVersionEditor 1 1 type 1 method System.Activities.Presentation.View .IVersionEditor
ITreeViewItemSelectionHandler 0.5 3 types 2 methods System.Activities.Presentation.View .TreeView.ITreeViewItemSelectionHandler
IWorkflowDesignerXamlHelperExecutionCont ext 1 1 type 10 methods Microsoft.Activities.Presentation.Xaml .IWorkflowDesignerXamlHelperExecutionCon text
ILoadRetryStrategy 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Activities.DurableInstancing .ILoadRetryStrategy
IObjectSerializer 0.35 5 types 4 methods System.Activities.DurableInstancing .IObjectSerializer
IAsyncCodeActivity 1 1 type 1 method System.Activities.IAsyncCodeActivity
IDynamicActivity 0.33 2 types 3 methods System.Activities.IDynamicActivity
ILocationReferenceExpression 1 1 type 1 method System.Activities.Expressions .ILocationReferenceExpression
ILocationReferenceWrapper 1 3 types 1 method System.Activities.Expressions .ILocationReferenceWrapper
DynamicUpdateMapBuilder+IDefinitionMatch er 0.25 4 types 4 methods System.Activities.DynamicUpdate .DynamicUpdateMapBuilder+IDefinitionMatc her
IInstanceUpdatable 1 1 type 1 method System.Activities.DynamicUpdate .IInstanceUpdatable
IFlowSwitch 1 1 type 2 methods System.Activities.Statements.IFlowSwitch
ICaseKeyBoxView 0.88 1 type 8 methods System.Activities.Core.Presentation .ICaseKeyBoxView
IFlowSwitchLink 0.33 2 types 9 methods System.Activities.Core.Presentation .IFlowSwitchLink
IFlowSwitchDefaultLink 1 1 type 2 methods System.Activities.Core.Presentation .IFlowSwitchDefaultLink
IActivationService 0.5 2 types 5 methods System.ServiceModel.Activation .IActivationService
IActivatedMessageQueue 0.33 3 types 9 methods System.ServiceModel.Activation .IActivatedMessageQueue
ICreateITypeLib 0.1 1 type 10 methods Microsoft.Tools.RegAsm.ICreateITypeLib
IAssemblyEnum 0.17 2 types 3 methods Microsoft.Win32.IAssemblyEnum
IApplicationContext 0 2 types 5 methods Microsoft.Win32.IApplicationContext
IAssemblyName 0.056 2 types 9 methods Microsoft.Win32.IAssemblyName
IClrStrongNameUsingIntPtr 0.24 1 type 25 methods Microsoft.Runtime.Hosting .IClrStrongNameUsingIntPtr
IClrStrongName 0.36 1 type 25 methods Microsoft.Runtime.Hosting.IClrStrongName
IAsyncCausalityTracerStatics 0.86 1 type 7 methods Windows.Foundation.Diagnostics .IAsyncCausalityTracerStatics
IWellKnownStringEqualityComparer 1 1 type 2 methods System.IWellKnownStringEqualityComparer
IRuntimeMethodInfo 0.24 21 types 1 method System.IRuntimeMethodInfo
IRuntimeFieldInfo 0.67 6 types 1 method System.IRuntimeFieldInfo
IResourceGroveler 1 1 type 2 methods System.Resources.IResourceGroveler
ISecurityElementFactory 0.5 2 types 4 methods System.Security.ISecurityElementFactory
IBuiltInPermission 1 1 type 1 method System.Security.Permissions .IBuiltInPermission
IUnionSemanticCodeGroup 0 1 type 1 method System.Security.Policy .IUnionSemanticCodeGroup
ILegacyEvidenceAdapter 1 1 type 2 methods System.Security.Policy .ILegacyEvidenceAdapter
IDelayEvaluatedEvidence 0.33 8 types 3 methods System.Security.Policy .IDelayEvaluatedEvidence
IReportMatchMembershipCondition 1 2 types 1 method System.Security.Policy .IReportMatchMembershipCondition
IRuntimeEvidenceFactory 0.5 2 types 3 methods System.Security.Policy .IRuntimeEvidenceFactory
Tokenizer+ITokenReader 1 1 type 1 method System.Security.Util .Tokenizer+ITokenReader
IAsyncLocal 0.11 9 types 1 method System.Threading.IAsyncLocal
IAsyncLocalValueMap 0.5 3 types 2 methods System.Threading.IAsyncLocalValueMap
IDeferredDisposable 1 1 type 1 method System.Threading.IDeferredDisposable
IThreadPoolWorkItem 0.12 8 types 2 methods System.Threading.IThreadPoolWorkItem
ITaskCompletionAction 0.67 3 types 1 method System.Threading.Tasks .ITaskCompletionAction
IProducerConsumerQueue<T> 0.25 4 types 5 methods System.Threading.Tasks .IProducerConsumerQueue<T>
ISection 0.083 6 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISection
ISectionWithStringKey 0.5 1 type 2 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISectionWithStringKey
ISectionWithReferenceIdentityKey 1 1 type 1 method System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISectionWithReferenceIdentityKey
ISectionEntry 0 2 types 2 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .ISectionEntry
IEnumUnknown 0.25 1 type 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumUnknown
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_INSTALLATION_REFEREN CE 0 1 type 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_INSTALLATION_REFERE NCE
IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA
IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA_PROPERTY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_DEPLOYMENT_METADATA_PROPERTY
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY
IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_FILE 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_ASSEMBLY_FILE
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_SUBCATEGORY 0.25 2 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_SUBCATEGORY
IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_INSTANCE 0.17 3 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumSTORE_CATEGORY_INSTANCE
IReferenceIdentity 0 5 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IReferenceIdentity
IDefinitionIdentity 0.021 12 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IDefinitionIdentity
IEnumDefinitionIdentity 0.25 2 types 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IEnumDefinitionIdentity
IDefinitionAppId 0.046 18 types 6 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IDefinitionAppId
IReferenceAppId 0 2 types 5 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IReferenceAppId
IIdentityAuthority 0.028 2 types 18 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IIdentityAuthority
IAppIdAuthority 0.062 4 types 16 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IAppIdAuthority
IStore 0.19 5 types 20 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IStore
IManifestParseErrorCallback 0 2 types 1 method System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IManifestParseErrorCallback
IManifestInformation 0.5 2 types 1 method System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IManifestInformation
IActContext 0.14 2 types 18 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .IActContext
ICMS 0.053 6 types 22 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.ICMS
IAssemblyReferenceDependentAssemblyEntry 0.091 1 type 11 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest .IAssemblyReferenceDependentAssemblyEntr y
IAssemblyReferenceEntry 0.25 1 type 4 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IAssemblyReferenceEntry
IEntryPointEntry 0.17 1 type 6 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IEntryPointEntry
IPermissionSetEntry 0.33 1 type 3 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IPermissionSetEntry
IDescriptionMetadataEntry 0.14 1 type 7 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IDescriptionMetadataEntry
IMetadataSectionEntry 0.048 2 types 21 methods System.Deployment.Internal.Isolation .Manifest.IMetadataSectionEntry
IInternalMessage 0.27 8 types 7 methods System.Runtime.Remoting.Messaging .IInternalMessage
ISerializationRootObject 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.Remoting.Messaging .ISerializationRootObject
NativeMethods+IDispatch 0 2 types 4 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .NativeMethods+IDispatch
IRestrictedErrorInfo 0 2 types 2 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IRestrictedErrorInfo
IClosable 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IClosable
IStringable 1 2 types 1 method System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IStringable
IReference<T> 0 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IReference<T>
IGetProxyTarget 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IGetProxyTarget
ICustomProperty 0 4 types 8 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.ICustomProperty
IIterable<T> 0.6 5 types 1 method System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IIterable<T>
IBindableIterable 1 1 type 1 method System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IBindableIterable
IIterator<T> 0.17 9 types 4 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IIterator<T>
IBindableIterator 0.17 6 types 3 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IBindableIterator
IVector<T> 0.27 4 types 12 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IVector<T>
IVector_Raw<T> 0.83 1 type 12 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IVector_Raw<T>
IVectorView<T> 0.38 6 types 4 methods System.Runtime.InteropServices .WindowsRuntime.IVectorView<T>
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Are SOLID principles Cargo Cult?

My last post about SOLID Design: The Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) generated some discussion on reddit. The discussion originated from a remark considering SOLID principles as Cargo Cult. Taking account the definition of Cargo Cult the metaphor is a bit provocative but it is not unfounded.

cargo cult is a belief system among members of a relatively undeveloped society in which adherents practice superstitious rituals hoping to bring modern goods supplied by a more technologically advanced society

The recent Boeing’s 737 Max fiasco revealed that some parts of their software have been outsourced to $9-an-hour engineers. Those engineers shouldn’t be blamed for not achieving top notch software taking account the budget. Nevertheless it is clear that a lot of software written nowadays look like this cargo cult plane. For many real-world developers, SOLID principles are superstitious rituals whose primary goal is to succeed during job interview.

The SRP article underlines that SRP is the only SOLID principle not related to the usage of abstraction and polymorphism. SRP is about logic partitioning into code: which logic should be declared in which class. But SRP is so vague it is practically useless from its two definitions.

Definition 1: A class should have a single responsibility and this responsibility should be entirely encapsulated by the class.

Definition 2: A class should have one reason to change.

One can justify any class design choice by tweaking somehow what is a responsibility or what is a reason to change. In other words, as someone wrote in comment: Most people who “practice” it don’t actually know what it means and use it as an excuse to do whatever the hell they were going to do anyways.

We can feel bitterness in those comments, certainly coming from seasoned developers whose job is to fix mistakes of $9 an hour engineers.

SOLID Principles vs. OOP Patterns

We must remember that SOLID principles emerged in the 80s and 90s from the work of world-class OOP experts like Robert C. Martin (Uncle Bob) and Bertrand Meyer. Software writing is often considered as an art. Terminologies such as clean code or beautiful code have been widely used. But art is a subjective activity. In this context, SOLID principles necessarily remain vague and subject to interpretation. And this is what makes the difference between a SOLID principle and an OOP pattern:

  • A SOLID Principle is subjective. It helps to guide the usage of powerful concepts of Object Oriented Programming (OOP).
  • An OOP Pattern is objective. It is a set of recipes to implement a well identified situation with the OOP concepts.

Despite a restraint number of keywords and operators, the OOP toolbelt of languages such as C# or Java is very rich. With a few dozens of characters it is possible to write code that puzzle experts. C# especially gets richer and richer with many syntactic sugars to express complex situations with just a few characters. This power is a double edged sword: seasoned developers can write neat and compact code. But on the other hand it is easy to misuse this power, especially for junior developers and all those that write code just to pay their bills.

Always keep in mind the KISS principle

Someone wrote in comments: “SOLID encourages abstraction, and abstraction increases complexity. It’s not always worth it, but it’s always presented as the non-plus ultra of good approaches.”

The only reason to be for abstraction in OOP is to simplify the implementation of a complex business rule.

  • Abstracting Circle, Rectangle and Triangle with an IShape interface will dramatically simplify the implementation of a shape drawing software.
  • On the other hand, creating an interface for each class is a waste of resource: not every concepts in your program deserve an abstraction.

This is why the Keep It Simple Stupid KISS principle should be always kept in mind: don’t add up extra implementation complexity on top of the business complexity.

SOLID and Static Analysis

I am in the .NET static analysis industry since 2004. At that time I was consulting for large companies with massive legacy apps that were very costly to maintain. Books like Robert Martin’s Agile Principles, Patterns, and Practices made me realize that the source code is data. This data can be measured with code metrics. And the same way relational data can be crawled with SQL queries, code as data can be crawled with code queries. For example:

This query will objectively match complex methods not fully covered by tests. There are situations where one can argue that static analysis returns false positives but there is no justification for complex methods not well tested.

Not all aspects of SOLID principles can be objectively measured and verified. However static analysis can help bring objectiveness. For example:

SOLID and Testability

Regularly applying such rules will avoid taking SOLID too far to the point it becomes detrimental. However there are still all those aspects of SOLID, and code design in general, that must be left to creativity and interpretation. Experience in software development helps a lot here: over the years one refines his/her gut feeling about which design will increase flexibility and maintainability.

By definition juniors developer have no experience. However anyone can relentlessly struggle for 100% code coverage by tests. Being able to fully cover your code means, by definition, that your code is testable. Testability doesn’t come by chance. The properties that leads to full testability are the same properties that leads to high maintainability. Those properties include:

  • Easiness to use API
  • Domain classes well isolated
  • Careful map of logic to classes
  • Short classes and short methods
  • Cohesive classes
  • Abstractions and polymorphism used judiciously
  • Careful management of states mutability

Advices to add up objectivity when applying SOLID principles

Not everyone is a senior developer with a passion for well designed code. As a consequence Cargo Cult usage of SOLID principles is common. To improve the design some objectivity needs to be added in the development process. Here are my 3 advices for that:

  • KISS principle first, always struggle for simplicity: if it is complicated it is not SOLID.
  • Use static analysis to automatically monitor some measurable aspects of SOLID. Gross violations of code quality rules and metrics are also SOLID principles violations.
  • Refactor your code until it becomes seamlessly 100% coverable by tests. Code that cannot be easily 100% covered by tests is not SOLID.

 

 

SOLID Design: The Single Responsibility Principle (SRP)

After having covered The Open-Close Principle (OCP) and The Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP) let’s talk about the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) which is the S in the SOLID acronym. The SRP definition is:

A class should have a single responsibility and this responsibility should be entirely encapsulated by the class.

This leads to what is a responsibility in software design? There is no trivial answer, this is why Robert C. Martin (Uncle Bob) rewrote the SRP principle this way:

A class should have one reason to change.

This leads to what is a reason to change?

SRP is a principle that cannot be easily inferred from its definition. Moreover the SRP lets a lot of room for own opinions and interpretations. So what is SRP about? SRP is about logic partitioning into code: which logic should be declared in which class. Something to keep in mind is that SRP is the only SOLID principle not related to the usage of abstraction and polymorphism.

The goal of this post is to propose objective and concrete guidelines to increase your classes compliance with SRP, and in-fine, increase the maintainability of your code.

SRP and Concerns

Typically the ActiveRecord pattern is used to exhibit a typical SRP violation. An ActiveRecord class has two responsibilities:

  • First an ActiveRecord object stores in-memory data retrieved from a relational database.
  • Second the record is active in the sense that data in-memory and data in the relational database are kept mirrored. For that, the CRUD (Create Read Update Delete) operations are implemented by the ActiveRecord.

To make things concrete an ActiveRecord class can look like that:

If Employee was a POCO class that doesn’t know about persistence and if the persistence was handled in a dedicated persistence layer the API would be improved because:

  • Not all Employee consumer wants to deal with persistence.
  • More importantly an Employee consumer really needs to know when an expensive DB roundtrip is triggered: if the Employee class is responsible for the persistence who knows if the data is persisted as soon as a setter is invoked?

Hence better isolate the persistence layer accesses and make them more explicit. This is why at NDepend we promote rules like UI layer shouldn’t use directly DB types that can be easily adapted to enforce any sort of code isolation.

Persistence is what we call a cross-cutting concerns, an aspect of the implementation that tends to spawn all over the code. We can expect that most domain objects are concerned with persistence. Other cross-cutting-concerns we want to separate domain objects from include: validation, log, authentication, error handling, threading, caching. The need to separate domain entities from those cross-cutting concerns can be handled by some OOP pattern like the pattern decorator for example. Alternatively some Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) frameworks and some Aspect-Oriented-Programming (AOP) frameworks can be used.

SRP and Reason to Change

Let’s consider this version of Employee:

The ComputePay() behavior is under the responsibility of the finance people and the ReportHours() behavior is under the responsibility of the operational people. Hence if a financial person needs a change to be implemented in ComputePay() we can assume this change won’t affect the ReportHours() method. Thus according to the version of SRP that states “a class should have one reason to change”, it is wise to declare these methods in different dedicated modules. As a consequence a change in ComputePay() has no risk to affect the behavior of ReportHours() and vice-versa. In other words we want these two parts of the code to be independent because they will evolve independently.

This is why Robert C. Martin wrote that SRP is about people : make sure that logics controlled by different people are implemented in different modules.

SRP and High-Cohesion

The SRP is about encapsulating logic and data in a class because they fit well together. Fit well means that the class is cohesive in the sense that most methods use most fields. Actually cohesion of a class can be measured with the Lack of Cohesion Of Methods (LCOM) metric. See below an explanations of LCOM (extracted from this great Stuart Celarier placemat) What matters is to understand that if all methods of a class are using all instances fields, the class is considered utterly cohesive and has the best LCOM score, which is 0 or close to 0.

Typically the effect of a SRP violation is to partition a class methods and fields into groups with few connections. The fields needed to compute the pay of an employee are not the same than the fields needed to report pending work. This is why the LCOM metric can be used to measure adherence to SRP and take actions. You can use the rule Avoid types with poor cohesion to track classes with poor cohesion between methods and fields.

SRP and Fat Code Smells

While we can hardly find an easy definition for what is a responsibility we noticed that adhering to SRP usually results in classes with a good LCOM score. On the other hand, not adhering to SRP usually leads to the God class phenomenon: a class that knows too much and does too much. Such god class is usually too large: violations of rules like Avoid types too big, Avoid types with too many methods, Avoid types with too many fields are good candidate to spot god classes and refactor into a finer-grained design.

Guidelines to adhere to SRP

Here are a set of objective and concrete guidelines to adhere to SRP:

  • Domain classes must be isolated from Cross-Cutting Concerns: code responsible for persistence, validation, log, authentication, error handling, threading, caching…
  • When implementing your domain, favor POCO classes that do not have any dependency on an external framework. Note that a POCO class is not necessarily a fields and properties only class, but can implement logic/behavior related to its data.
  • Use your understanding of the Domain to partition code: logics related to different business functions should be kept separated to avoid interference.
  • Regularly check the Lack of Cohesion Of Methods (LCOM) score of your classes.
  • Regularly check for too large and too complex classes.

 

SOLID Design: The Open-Close Principle (OCP)

The Open-Close principle (OCP) is the O in the well known SOLID acronym.

Bertrand Meyer is generally credited for having originated the term open/closed principle, which appeared in his 1988 book Object Oriented Software Construction. Its original definition is

  • A module will be said to be open if it is still available for extension. For example, it should be possible to add fields to the data structures it contains, or new elements to the set of functions it performs.
  • A module will be said to be closed if it is available for use by other modules. This assumes that the module has been given a well-defined, stable description (the interface in the sense of information hiding)

Upon these definitions the principle is usually expressed and summarized this way:

Modules should be open for extension and closed for modification.

There have been (and still are) a lot of debates about the meaning of this simple definition and its implication on the usage of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in the real-world.

In this post I’ll try to be as concrete and concise as possible.

The classical code example to explain OCP

The classical code example to explain OCP can be translated in C# this way:

I find this example a bit gross. I believe one must have no idea of what OOP is to write such code. It can obviously be refactored to something like this:

Let’s look at the implication of this refactoring:

  • We introduced a new abstraction IShape to represent a concept that we already had in mind. Indeed, in the first code sample the method DrawShapes() already accepted a sequence of shapes. With the new IShape abstraction our design is now open to accept more shapes like Triangle or Pentagone.
  • The method DrawShapes() will draw any new shape without any need for modification. In other words the DrawShapes() method implementation is closed.

Here is how the OCP is usually presented. It is all about anticipating the future changes in the system in a way that:

  • When a change occurs existing code is left untouched. Existing code here is DrawShapes() concrete method body, IShape interface and Circle and Square classes.
  • When a change occurs new code to implement changes is written in new classes that implement existing abstraction. New classes here could be Triangle and Pentagone.

The Point of Variation principle

Another way to see the OCP is the Point of Variation (PV) principle that states:

Identify points of predicted variation and create a stable interface around them.

I find PV more understandable than OCP because it is actionable. First identify potential variations, second build the proper abstractions around these variations.

The real challenge: Anticipation

But the real challenge is anticipation, anticipating is hard. If anticipation was easy we’d be all billionaire in bitcoins. In real world, when you anticipate the risk is high that:

  1. We do anticipate variations that won’t vary. This is what the YAGNI principle says (You aren’t gonna need it): Always implement things when you actually need them, never when you just foresee that you need them. Developing and maintaining an abstraction has a cost and if we won’t need it this cost is negative.
  2. The risk is also high that we don’t anticipate the variation that will really be needed. But once the need for variation becomes real this is your developer responsibility to refactor and create the right abstractions and the right stable code that will act upon these abstractions. This is the fool me once, don’t fool me twice idea: I am not supposed to foresee what I’ll need but I am supposed to identify and then write the right abstraction when I need it.

OCP in the real world

Here is a pragmatic approach to OCP:

  • In any case the KISS principle applies (Keep It Simple Stupid): don’t underestimate the difficulty of anticipating and don’t waste your resources creating abstractions you won’t need.
  • Write automatic tests: one of the greatest benefit of writing tests is that for a while, you must look at your code from the client perspective. If your code contains some area difficult to cover by tests, it certainly means that your code should be refactored to be easily 100% testable. Experience shows that when refactoring from poorly testable code to fully testable code, the need for right abstractions naturally pops up.
  • Some static analyzers can help you pinpoint typical OCP violations:
    • when downcasting reference (i.e casting from a base class or interface to a subclass or leaf class.),
    • when using the is or as operators (as in the first example above).
    • NDepend has the rule Base class should not use derivatives: matches of this rules are obvious violation of the OCP.
  • Keep in mind the fool me once, don’t fool me twice idea. You must refactor code as soon as the need to abstract some concepts is identified. Of course sometime it is not possible if tons of client code depend upon your API: in this situation you cannot easily refactor and often you’ll have to live with wrong design. This is why public API design is such a sensitive topic: you have no other choice than doing your best to anticipate and to accept to live with your past design mistake.

Be open to more than one variation with the Visitor pattern

Finally let’s underline that in the real world, data objects (like the shapes here) don’t implement themselves algorithm such as drawing. Experience tells that this is a clear violation of OCP because when a new algorithm is needed on data objects, like persistence in addition of drawing for example, all shape classes must be modified again. This is also a violation of the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP, the S in SOLID) because a shape class has now two responsibilities: 1) holding the shape data 2) drawing the shape.

Hence we now two variations: we  need a way to abstract both the shapes and the algorithms applied on the shapes, in order to to write something like algorithm.ApplyOn(shape). This sort of call on two abstractions is named a double dispatching call: the implementation really invoked depends both on the IShape object’s type and the IAlgorithm object’s type. If you have N shapes and M algorithms you need [N x M] implementations.

Fortunately the visitor pattern helps implementing double dispatching. The code with the new persistence algorithm would then look like:

 

 

 

SOLID design: The Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP)

The Liskov substitution principle is the L in the well known SOLID acronym. The original principle definition is:

Methods that use references to base classes must be able to use objects of derived classes without knowing it.

At first glance this principle is pretty easy to understand. At second glance it seems redundant with the OOP concept of polymorphism. After all, the whole point of polymorphism is to consume an abstraction without knowing the implementation behind isn’t it?

However it is a good thing that the community emphases the Liskov substitution principle. This principle is in fact a caveat for developers that polymorphism is both powerful and tricky : in the real world, the usage of polymorphism often leads to a dead-end situation, it must be wisely used.

LSP is often summarized with a counter-example of Duck Test“If it looks like a duck, quacks like a duck, but needs batteries – you probably have the wrong abstraction”

Let’s details some common polymorphism pitfalls that the Liskov substitution principle attempts to prevent by reminding the developer to adopt the client perspective.

Prevent situations where a method cannot be implemented

When a class implements an interface or derives from a base class, refactor tooling like Visual Studio refactor tools, Resharper or CodeRush propose to insert abstract methods stubs to implement. Typically the default body of such inserted method is throw NotImplementedException().

Obviously this behavior must remain temporary and must not be released in production. Client code that hold a reference on the interface or the base class doesn’t expect to get a NotImplementedException raised upon a method call. This is why NDepend has a default rule named Do implement methods that throw NotImplementedException, to prevent such situation.

On the other hand, if it doesn’t make sense to implement an abstract method, it clearly means that the design is wrong. Here is such wrong design, assuming that all birds can fly:

This code could then be refactored to:

The problem was that Bird with its Fly() method was too coarse, we needed some refinement because not all bird can fly. From my experience such wrong assumptions on interfaces and base classes happen quite often in the real world. When you stumble on such situation, see it as a good starting point for refactoring … if possible. Indeed, sometime refactoring is not an option if many clients depend already on the wrong design.

Example of a LSP violation in the .NET framework design

One dreaded LSP violation is .NET System.Array implementing the ICollection<T> interface. Hence Array has to implement the ICollection<T>.Add() method but calling this method on an array throws at runtime a NotSupportedException:

The C# compiler doesn’t even warn on such simple erroneous program.

Of course we’d need to ensure that ICollection<T>.IsReadOnly is false before modifying a collection through a reference of IList<T> or a ICollection<T> but frankly this is an error-prone design. I can remember having stumbled on this situation quite a few times during the last 15 years I am programming with C#/.NET.

Moreover refactoring this original design mistake is not an option anymore, even when .NET Core was introduced, since millions of programs are relying on this API. IReadOnlyCollection<T> has been introduced with .NET v4.5 in 2012 but the original design cannot be changed.

Think twice before applying the ISA trick

Another common example to explain the Liskov substitution principle is the Rectangle/Square paradigm. A square is-a rectangle isn’t it? So we should be able to write such code:

Clearly this is a wrong usage of the ISA principle: yes a square is a rectangle but the client doesn’t expect that when modifying the height of the rectangle, the width gets modified also.

Here also such wrong design emerges quite often in the real world. For example when dealing with a complex control hierarchy with dozens of fields to maintain at various level, it can become quite tricky to maintain coherence in your objects’ states at runtime.

Code Contract to help?

In theory code contract could help here. A contract is one or several assertions that prevent corrupted state. When a corrupted state is reached at runtime (whether in production or at test run time), such assertion must deadly fail because continuing running with corrupted state can potentially lead to more corrupted states.

Often contracts are used at interface level to improve the semantic by adding constraints to classes that implement the interface. We might want to force all implementations of IRectangle.set_Width to let the Height value untouched. By using Microsoft Code Contracts we could try to write something like that:

Unfortunately, as far as I know, Microsoft Code Contracts has no support for such PreserveValue() possibility. More generally it seems that Microsoft Code Contracts doesn’t receive much love nowadays despite how useful code contract can be. Ok C#8 non-nullable reference addresses many of the situations usually verified through contracts or assertions, but not all contracts are about nullable reference, as this example suggests.

Use polymorphism with great caution

These classical Bird and Rectangle examples show well how polymorphism and inheritance can quickly lead to rotten design, even in apparently simple situations. The Array class implementing ICollection<T> situation shows that in practice LSP violations just happen.

In my point of view, what the Liskov substitution principle really says is that when writing an API relying on polymorphism, you should first take the point of view of the client of your API before writing any interface and any class hierarchy.

  • Do really all birds can fly? What happen if I try to call Fly() on a bird that cannot fly?
  • Is a square really a rectangle? What happen if I change the width on a square?

In the real world this looks like:

  • Can all collections really be modified? What happen if I add or remove an element to an array?
  • Do all controls are scrollable? What happen if a scrollbar is displayed on a control that should not scroll?
  • Do withdrawal applies to all bank account? What happen if we try to withdraw money from a locked long term deposit account? Should we fail withdrawal badly in this situation or should we prevent such situation with an IAccountThatAuthorizeWithdraw abstraction?

A pattern emerges here: for each members of your interface you should question yourself: Do this member applies seamlessly to all objects that will implement this interface?

Notice that API writing principle is more general, it doesn’t only apply to polymorphism: when writing an API first take the point of view of the client of your API. This is the only way to achieve elegant API that clients will love to consume. This is another way to explain Test-Driven Development (TDD), where client code must be written for test and design purposes before writing the code itself.

In a previous post I explained why your classes should be declared as sealed when possible  and why NDepend proposes the default rule Class with no descendant should be sealed if possible. In the real world, a class is never well designed for inheritance by chance and thus should be sealed by default. Designing well a class for inheritance requires quite an extensive understanding of your domain. As for everything in life, it requires a lot of effort to build something that others will find easy to use.

 

 

Identify .NET Code Structure Patterns with no Effort

The two pillars of code maintainability are automatic testing and clean code structure.

  • Testing is used to regularly challenge code correctness and detect regression early. Testing can be easily assessed with numbers like code coverage ratio and the amount of assertions tested.
  • A clean code structure prevents the phenomenon of spaghetti code, entangled code that is hard to understand and hard to maintain. However assessing the code structure cannot be achieved through numbers like for testing. Moreover the structure emerges from a myriad of details buried in many source files and thus appropriate tooling is needed.

For most engineers, code dependency graph is the tool of choice to explore code structure. Boxes and arrows graph is intuitive and well adapted to visualize a small amount of dependencies. However to visualize complex portion of code the Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) is more adapted. See below the same set of 34 namespaces visualized with the NDepend Dependency Graph and the NDepend Dependency Matrix.

NDepend dependency graph
NDepend dependency graph

 

NDepend Dependency Matrix
NDepend Dependency Matrix

If the concept of dependency matrix is something new to you, it is important to note that:

  • The Matrix headers’ elements represent graph boxes
  • The Matrix non-empty cells correspond to graph arrows. Numbers on the cells represents a measure of the coupling in terms of numbers of methods and fields involved. In a symmetric matrix a pair of blue and green cell is symmetric because both cells represents the same thing: the blue cell represents A uses B and the green cells represents B is used by A.

Here is a 5 minutes introduction video if you are not familiar with the dependency matrix:

Clearly the graph is more intuitive, but apart the two red arrows that represent two pairs of namespaces mutually dependent this graph tells few things about the overall structure.

On the other hand the matrix algorithm naturally attempts to layer code elements, exhibit dependency cycles, shows which element is used a lot or not… Let’s enumerate some structural patterns that can be visualized at a glance with the dependency matrix:

Layers

One pattern that is made obvious by a DSM is layered structure (i.e acyclic structure). When the matrix is triangular, with all blue cells in the lower-left triangle and all green cells in the upper-right triangle, then it shows that the structure is perfectly layered. In other words, the structure doesn’t contain any dependency cycle.

On the right part of the snapshot, the same layered structure is represented with a graph. All arrows have the same left to right direction. The problem with graph, is that the graph layout doesn’t scale. Here, we can barely see the big picture of the structure. If the number of boxes would be multiplied by 2, the graph would be completely unreadable. On the other side, the DSM representation wouldn’t be affected; we say that the DSM scales better than graph.

Notice that NDepend proposes 2 rules out of the box to control layering by preventing dependency cycles to appear: ND1400 Avoid namespaces mutually dependent and ND1401 Avoid namespaces dependency cycles.

Interestingly enough, most of graph layout algorithms rely on the fact that a graph is acyclic. To compute layout of a graph with cycles, these algorithms temporarily discard some dependencies to deal with a layered graph, and then append the discarded dependencies at the last step of the computation.

Cycles

If a structure contains a cycle, the cycle is displayed by a red square on the DSM. We can see that inside the red square, green and blue cells are mixed across the diagonal. There are also some black cells that represent mutual direct usage (i.e A is using B and B is using A).

The NDepend’s DSM comes with the option Indirect Dependency. An indirect dependency between A and B means that A is using something, that is using something, that is using something … that is using B. Below is shown the same DSM with a cycle but in indirect mode. We can see that the red square is filled up with only black cells. It just means that given any element A and B in the cycle, A and B are indirectly and mutually dependent.

Here is the same structure represented with a graph. The red arrow shows that several elements are mutually dependent. But the graph is not of any help to highlight all elements involved in the parent cycle.

Notice that in NDepend, we provided a button to highlight cycles in the DSM (if any). If the structure is layered, then this button has for effect to triangularize the matrix and to keep non-empty cells as closed as possible to the diagonal.

High Cohesion / Low-Coupling

The idea of high-cohesion (inside a component) / low-coupling (between components) is popular nowadays. But if one cannot measure and visualize dependencies, it is hard to get a concrete evaluation of cohesion and coupling. DSM is good at showing high cohesion. In the DSM below, an obvious squared aggregate around the diagonal is displayed. It means that elements involved in the square have a high cohesion: they are strongly dependent on each other although. Moreover, we can see that they are layered since there is no cycle. They are certainly candidate to be grouped into a parent artifact (such as a namespace or an assembly).

On the other hand, the fact that most cells around the square are empty advocate for low-coupling between elements of the square and other elements.

In the DSM below, we can see 2 components with high cohesion (upper and lower square) and a pretty low coupling between them.

While refactoring, having such an indicator can be pretty useful to know if there are opportunities to split coarse components into several more fine-grained components.

Too many responsibilities

The popular Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) states that: a class shouldn’t have more than one reason to change. Another way to interpret the SRP is that a class shouldn’t use too many different other types. If we extend the idea at other level (assemblies, namespaces and method), certainly, if a code element is using dozens of other different code elements (at same level), it has too many responsibilities. Often the term God class or God component is used to qualify such piece of code.

DSM can help pinpoint code elements with too many responsibilities. Such code element is represented by columns with many blue cells and by rows with many green cells. The DSM below exposes this phenomenon.

Popular Code Elements

A popular code element is used by many other code elements. Popular code elements are unavoidable (think of the String class for example).

A popular code element is not a flaw. However it is advised that popular elements are interfaces and enumerations. This way consumers rely on abstractions and not on implementations details. The benefit is that consumers are less often broken because abstraction are less subject to change than implementations.

A popular code element is represented by columns with many green cells and by rows with many blue cells. The DSM below highlights a popular code element.

Something to notice is that when one is keeping its code structure perfectly layered, popular components are naturally kept at low-level. Indeed, a popular component cannot de-facto use many things, because popular component are low-level, they cannot use something at a higher level. This would create a dependency from low-level to high-level and this would break the acyclic property of the structure.

Mutual dependencies

You can see the coupling between 2 components by right clicking a non-empty cell, and select the menu Open this dependency.

If the opened cell was black as in the snapshot above (i.e if A and B are mutually dependent) then the resulting rectangular matrix will contains both green and blue cells (and eventually black cells as well) as in the snapshot below.

In this situation, you’ll often notice a deficit of green or blue cells (3 blue cells for 1 green cell here). It is because even if 2 code elements are mutually dependent, there often exists a natural level order between them. For example, consider the System.Threading namespaces and the System.String class. They are mutually dependent; they both rely on each other. But the matrix shows that Threading is much more dependent on String than the opposite (there are much more blue cells than green cells). This confirms the intuition that Threading is upper level than String.

Ensure that your classes are declared as sealed when possible

Inheritance is one of the pillar of OOP. However, in the real world, most classes are not designed to be properly inheritable.

Properly designing a class to be inheritable is a tricky task. One must anticipate state initialization, state correctness, state mutability and also non-public methods calls from descendants. Anticipating well code re-use is hard and this requires experience. As a consequence there is no chance that a class gets well designed for inheritance by chance.

However, in both C# and VB.NET, a class is by default inheritable. The C# keyword sealed and the VB.NET keyword NotInheritable must be specified explicitly. Since there is no compiler warning most developers don’t bother to seal their classes. Hence most classes are not properly designed for inheritance but are implicitly declared as inheritable.

As if writing high quality code was not complicated enough here we have a language pitfall.

This is why NDepend proposes the default rule Class with no descendant should be sealed if possible. The CQLinq source code of this rule is pretty obvious:

As explained in the rule’s comments, you won’t get warnings per default for public non-sealed classes with no descendants. Indeed, it might be well that the analyzed code base is a framework and that descendants of such classes are not available at the time of analysis. But if the code base analyzed is an application with no public API it is important to comment this clause and get most public classes declared as sealed.

If you are not convinced that most classes should be sealed, there are also non-obvious reasons. Here is a quote from Jeffrey Richter from his essential book CLR via C#:

When defining a new type, compilers should make the class sealed by default so that the class cannot be used as a base class. Instead, many compilers, including C#, default to unsealed classes and allow the programmer to explicitly mark a class as sealed by using the sealed keyword. Obviously, it is too late now, but I think that today’s compilers have chosen the wrong default and it would be nice if it could change with future compilers. There are three reasons why a sealed class is better than an unsealed class:

  • Versioning: When a class is originally sealed, it can change to unsealed in the future without breaking compatibility. (…)
  • Performance: (…) if the JIT compiler sees a call to a virtual method using a sealed types, the JIT compiler can produce more efficient code by calling the method non-virtually.(…)
  • Security and Predictability: A class must protect its own state and not allow itself to ever become corrupted. When a class is unsealed, a derived class can access and manipulate the base class’s state if any data fields or methods that internally manipulate fields are accessible and not private.(…)

In the same vein you can also refer to this Eric Lippert 2004 post where he explains why most .NET Framework classes are sealed per default.

The continuous adaptation of Visual Studio extensions

One could think that developing an extension for a two-decades+ product as mature as Visual Studio is headache-less.

Not really. Visual Studio is a big big beast used by millions of professional developers daily. Versions after versions Microsoft is spending an astounding amount of effort to improve it and make sure it respects the latest standard in terms of dev platforms, IDE features, usability and performance.

This implies a lot of deep changes and all VS extensions must adapt to these changes … or die. Most of this adaptation efforts come from the support of new platforms (.NET Core, Xamarin, upcoming .NET 5…) but here I’d like to focus on VS integration recent changes.

Deferred extensions loading

On Monday 11th December 2017 all VS partners received an mail announcing VS package deferred loading, also referred to extension asynchronous initialization. In this mode VS extensions are loaded after VS startup and initialization. As a consequence VS startup is not slowed down by extensions.

Implementing this scenario required serious changes described here but this deferred loading scenario became mandatory only with VS 2019.1 (16.1) released this spring 2019, around 18 months later after the initial announcement. VS extension ISVs got plenty of time (and plenty of high quality support from Microsoft engineers) to implement and test this async loading scheme.

VS2019 Extensions Menu

In February 2019, we were developing the support of NDepend for VS 2019 and were downloading the latest VS2019 preview, installed our NDepend extension and immediately noticed there were no more NDepend global menu? After investigation we saw our NDepend main menu, and other extensions menus, under a new Extensions menu –with no possibility to get back extensions menu in the main bar–.

Visual Studio 2019 Extensions Menu

This change impacts millions of extensions users and hundreds of partners ISVs but has never been announced publicly ahead nor debated. As an immediate consequence someone asked to get rid of this new Extensions menu and this generated a long list of complains.

I guess this major (and blunt) change was provoked initially by the VS2019 compact menu look, but I am not sure: even on a 1920 pixel wide monitor (DPI 100%) there is still plenty of width space to show extension menus.

Visual Studio 2019 Compact Menu

Sometime in April 2019 someone anonymously published on the discussion the link to a new extension to put back extensions main menus in the main bar.

Getting back Extensions in Main Menu

I guess the VS APIs used to achieve this magic are not well documented, hence we can wonder if this initiative comes from MS or not? At least now users can get back their extensions menus in the main bar. But the Extensions in Main Menus extension has been downloaded only 800 times in around 3 months. It means only a tiny subset of VS extension users are aware of it and are actually using it.

Personally I still have hope Microsoft will reconsider this move and will embed a similar option in a future VS version to let the users chose which features (out-of-the-box VS feature or extension feature) deserves a no-brainer/main bar access or not.

VS2019 Optimize rendering for screens with different pixel densities

We published NDepend v2019.2.0 on 14th March 2019 with proud support for VS2019 and .NET Core 3. Two weeks later a user reported severe UI bugs we’ve never observed. The repro scheme was easy:

  • install .NET Fx 4.8,
  • enable the new VS2019 option Optimize rendering for screens with different pixel densities
  • run VS2019 with the NDepend extension in a multi-monitors environment with various DPI scale for each monitor
Optimize rendering for screens with different pixel densities
Optimize rendering for screens with different pixel densities

We then discussed with VS engineers. They pointed us to this documentation and kindly offered quite a few custom advices: Per-Monitor Awareness support for Visual Studio extenders

Actually this change is pretty deep for (the tons of) WPF and Winforms controls rendered in the Visual studio UI. This took us time but we just released on July 3rd 2019 NDepend v2019.2.5 with full support for this Optimize rendering for screens with different pixel densities option. This required quite tricky fixes and we’d wish we have had a few months to adapt to this major breaking changes as we had for deferred loading explained above. As far as I know extensions ISVs were not informed in advance. On the other hand I’d like to underline the awesome support we got from Visual Studio engineers (as always actually) thanks again to all of them.

I noticed that Resharper pops up a dialog at VS2019 starting time (not sure if they got all fixed at the time of writing).

Resharper Message related to Optimize rendering for screens with different pixel densities

I also noticed that up to VS2019 16.1.3 there were still some bugs in the VS UI, see the Project Properties and Diagnostics Tool windows below. I just tried with 16.1.5 and it seems fixed.

VS 2019 16.1.3 UI issues (now fixed)

My point is that this great improvement (Optimize rendering for screens with different pixel densities) should have been highlighted ahead during VS2019 preview time to avoid a wide range of UI bugs experienced by users during the early months of VS2019 RTM.

What can we expect next?

With .NET 5 public announcement on May 6th 2019 the .NET community now knows that sooner or later most of .NET Core or .NET Fx applications will have to be migrated to benefit from latest innovations and improvements.

Hopefully .NET Core apps migration will be quite straightforward since .NET 5 is .NET Core vNext. But .NET Fx apps migration will be (more or less) painful. Although WPF and Winforms desktop APIs are already supported by .NET Core 3, some others major APIs are not – and won’t be – supported (ASP.NET Web Forms, WCF, Windows Workflow, .NET Remoting, AppDomain…).

For too complex migration plans here is the Microsoft recommendation: What do you do with your older applications that you are not spending much engineering time on? We recommend leaving these on .NET Framework. (…) .NET Framework will continue to be supported and will receive minor updates. Even here at Microsoft, many large products will remain on .NET Framework. There are absolutely no changes to support and that will not change in the future. .NET Framework 4.8 is the latest version of .NET Framework and will continue to be distributed with future releases of Windows. If it is installed on a supported version of Windows, .NET Framework 4.8 will continue to be supported too.

Visual Studio 2019 is still running in a 32 bits process upon the .NET Fx 4 CLR with a massive WPF based UI and some COM usage.

Can we expect VS2019 to run on .NET 5 sometime in 2021? or in a later version? or never?

Only the future will tell but I hope extension VS ISVs will be advised ahead to anticipate the migration and continue to offer a seamless integration experience to users.

Simplifying a Visual Studio extension menu: A Case Study

NDepend version 2019.2.1 has just been released. This new version proposes a simplified menu for the NDepend Visual Studio extension.

Before going further I underline that we didn’t get rid of the standard menu, the user can switch back and forth simplified and standard menu within a single click. There is something in UI that all users worldwide dislike: don’t force a new UI just for the sake of it.

The simplified menu is shown per default on machines that never ran NDepend, else the standard menu is shown. Here is a view of the simplified/beginner menu vs. the standard/advanced menu.

NDepend simplified/beginner menu vs. standard/advanced menu

We introduced a simplified menu because we think that trial users and beginner users will benefit from it. Having most features available through a single level menu certainly makes the product features more discoverable.

More and Tools popup menus

A More… popup menu is here to show features and actions that are typically used less often. It is a UI trade off to force an extra-click to access these actions:

More Actions Menu

The Tools popup menu is an opportunity to switch to the advanced menu, and see the NDepend Start Page. It is also good to discover NDepend tooling outside Visual Studio, the standalone VisualNDepend.exe, NDepend API and OSS Power Tools, Azure DevOps extension and others Continuous Integration possibilities:

Tools Menu Actions

Opportunities to lean up the user experience

Having a simplified menu is also an opportunity to encourage the user to do some configuration steps. For example in the first screenshot we have the Explore Code Coverage button. With NDepend the code coverage by tests of a code base can be harnessed in multiple ways as explained here. But to harness code coverage data the user has to import it first. Hence, per default an Import Code Coverage button is shown to the user and the Explore Code Coverage button is shown only upon data imported.

Another important NDepend feature is comparing against a baseline. As far as I know NDepend is the only Visual Studio tool that lets the user diff the actual code base against a baseline. The user can then focus on new issues since baseline, or diff-related issues like API Breaking Changes or Code Smells Regression. The baseline can also be used to review code changes since the baseline. When NDepend analyzes a large legacy code base, letting the user focuses on new issues since the baseline is a very important facility to avoid letting the users lost in the prioritization of thousands of issues.

Per default the baseline is set to the first analysis result obtained. It means that the first time the user runs an analysis on a code base, this first analysis result is used both for the actual snapshot and the baseline snapshot. In this situation, when the user clicks the buttons New Issues since Baseline or Diff since Baseline, there is nothing to show. Thus we take a chance to show an informational message box that explains this no-diff situation. Doing so avoids the user being stuck with a no-result action or even worse, a button disabled with no obvious reason. We also hope these explanations will motivate the user to work on changes and then re-analyze to see what NDepend has to say about the new changes.

Having a single level menu just became mandatory

Another point to underline is that having a single level VS extension menu just became mandatory. Visual Studio 2019 just introduced the Extensions top level menu and extensions cannot have their top level menus anymore.

Visual Studio 2019 Extensions Menus

This move adds an extra click for accessing each extension feature. This extra click represents a UI regression for the millions of VS extensions users and de-facto discards features accessible only through a nested sub-menu. This move was unexpected because it solves a UI problem we (as a VS extension provider) have never heard of: having so many extensions menus that it becomes a cluttering problem. The only right way to solve such problem would be to let the user choose which extension have their top-level menu and which extension lies under the Extensions menu. An extension menu should be top-leveled by default upon installation: when a user installs an extension the goal is to spend the next minutes or hours trying it and using it. In this context it doesn’t make sense to put the extension menus in a second-zone, doing so degrades the so precious and fragile FTUE First-Time User Experience. A VS extension doesn’t get a second chance to offer a first impression to a trial user.

Several big names in the VS extension industry have already complained about this move here. You can vote and comment now because apparently Microsoft will monitor this thread only till mid May 2019.


 

We hope this simplified menu will help trial and beginner users getting started with all the NDepend goodies. Certainly some seasoned users will also prefer this less cluttered menu style. If you have comment or ideas to improve more let us know.

On forced UI change you can read further this 2012’s Scott Hanselman post Who moved my cheese?

People don’t like it when you move their cheese. They are just trying to get through the maze, they have it all under control and then, poof, someone moved their cheese. Now it’s a huge hassle to find it again. Change a hotkey or the case of the menus and all heck breaks loose.

 

An in-depth analysis of .NET Core 3.0 support for WPF and Winforms APIs

.NET Core 3.0 will be RTM soon and it supports WPF and Winforms APIs.

In my last post I’ve been exploring .NET Core 3.0 new APIs by comparing compiled bits with NDepend, of .NET Core 3.0 against .NET Core 2.2.

In this post I will compare .NET Core 3.0 Windows Forms (Winforms) and WPF APIs with .NET Framework 4.x.

I won’t make the suspense last: .NET Core 3.0 support for Winforms and WPF APIs is almost complete, I found very few breaking changes.

I will now explain what I’ve done with NDepend to explore this API diff, and then dig into the results. If you are wondering How to port desktop applications to .NET Core 3.0 see Microsoft explanations here.

Comparing .NET Core 3.0 Winforms and WPF APIs vs. NET Framework 4.x with NDepend

From the NDepend Start Page select Compare 2 versions of a code base menu. Then use Add assemblies in Folder buttons to add .NET Framework assemblies from folder C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319 and Microsoft.WindowsDesktop.app nuget package assemblies (from folder C:\Users\psmac\.nuget\packages\microsoft.windowsdesktop.app\3.0.0-preview-27325-3\ref\netcoreapp3.0 on my machine).

Comparing .NET Core 3.0 Winforms WPF APIs with .NET Framework

A minor difficulty was to isolate the exact set of assemblies to focus on. Here is the list of concerned assemblies I came up with:

Notice that to preserve the correspondance between APIs and assemblies packaging, the attribute TypeForwardedToAttribute is massively used to delegate implementations.

Usage of TypeForwardedToAttribute

The few breaking changes

With the default NDepend rules about API breaking changes, I’ve only found 16 public types and 52 public methods missing. Here are the types:

16 types missing in WPF Winforms .NET Core 3.0 API

16 types missing on a total of 4.095 public types, well done!

Number of public types per assemblies

The 52 public methods missing are: (on a total of 42.645 public methods)

Parent Assembly Name Parent Type Name Method name
System.Security.Principal.Windows System.Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity .ctor(String,String)
System.Security.Principal.Windows System.Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity Impersonate()
System.Security.Principal.Windows System.Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity Impersonate(IntPtr)
System.Security.Principal.Windows System.Security.Principal.IdentityReferenceCollection get_IsReadOnly()
System.Security.Permissions System.Net.EndpointPermission ToString()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.HostProtectionException GetObjectData(SerializationInfo,StreamingContext)
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.ApplicationDirectory Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.ApplicationTrust Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.PermissionRequestEvidence Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.Site Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.StrongName Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.Url Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.Zone Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.GacInstalled Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.Hash Clone()
System.Security.Permissions System.Security.Policy.Publisher Clone()
System.Security.Cryptography.Pkcs System.Security.Cryptography.Pkcs.EnvelopedCms .ctor(SubjectIdentifierType,ContentInfo)
System.Security.Cryptography.Pkcs System.Security.Cryptography.Pkcs.EnvelopedCms .ctor(SubjectIdentifierType,ContentInfo,AlgorithmIdentifier)
System.Security.Cryptography.Pkcs System.Security.Cryptography.Pkcs.EnvelopedCms Encrypt()
System.Security.Cryptography.Pkcs System.Security.Cryptography.Pkcs.ContentInfo Finalize()
System.Security.Cryptography.Cng System.Security.Cryptography.ECDiffieHellmanCng FromXmlString(String)
System.Security.Cryptography.Cng System.Security.Cryptography.ECDiffieHellmanCng ToXmlString(Boolean)
System.Security.Cryptography.Cng System.Security.Cryptography.ECDsaCng FromXmlString(String)
System.Security.Cryptography.Cng System.Security.Cryptography.ECDsaCng ToXmlString(Boolean)
System.Security.Cryptography.Cng System.Security.Cryptography.RSACng DecryptValue(Byte[])
System.Security.Cryptography.Cng System.Security.Cryptography.RSACng EncryptValue(Byte[])
System.Security.Cryptography.Cng System.Security.Cryptography.RSACng get_KeyExchangeAlgorithm()
System.Security.Cryptography.Cng System.Security.Cryptography.RSACng get_SignatureAlgorithm()
System.Printing System.Printing.PrintQueue set_Name(String)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintInt32Property op_Implicit(PrintInt32Property)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintStringProperty op_Implicit(PrintStringProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintStreamProperty op_Implicit(PrintStreamProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintQueueAttributeProperty op_Implicit(PrintQueueAttributeProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintQueueStatusProperty op_Implicit(PrintQueueStatusProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintBooleanProperty op_Implicit(PrintBooleanProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintThreadPriorityProperty op_Implicit(PrintThreadPriorityProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintServerLoggingProperty op_Implicit(PrintServerLoggingProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintDriverProperty op_Implicit(PrintDriverProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintPortProperty op_Implicit(PrintPortProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintServerProperty op_Implicit(PrintServerProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintTicketProperty op_Implicit(PrintTicketProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintByteArrayProperty op_Implicit(PrintByteArrayProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintProcessorProperty op_Implicit(PrintProcessorProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintQueueProperty op_Implicit(PrintQueueProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintJobPriorityProperty op_Implicit(PrintJobPriorityProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintJobStatusProperty op_Implicit(PrintJobStatusProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintDateTimeProperty op_Implicit(PrintDateTimeProperty)
System.Printing System.Printing.IndexedProperties.PrintSystemTypeProperty op_Implicit(PrintSystemTypeProperty)
System.Printing System.Windows.Xps.XpsDocumentWriter raise__WritingProgressChanged(Object,WritingProgressChangedEventArgs)
System.Printing System.Windows.Xps.XpsDocumentWriter raise__WritingCompleted(Object,WritingCompletedEventArgs)
System.Printing System.Windows.Xps.XpsDocumentWriter raise__WritingCancelled(Object,WritingCancelledEventArgs)
System.Drawing System.Drawing.FontConverter Finalize()

Portability to .NET Core 3.0 analysis

Microsoft offers a Portability Analyzer tool to analyze changes in desktop API that will break your desktop app. I’ve tested it on NDepend but I just got very coarse results. Did I miss something? At least it is mostly green 🙂

Portability Analyzer analysis on NDepend

I wrote last year a post named Quickly assess your .NET code compliance with .NET Standard let me know in comment if it is worth revisiting this post for desktop APIs. Btw, my guess is that desktop APIs won’t be part of .NET Standard vNext (since there is no plan to support it on all platforms) but I haven’t found any related info on the web.

Why migrate your desktop app to .NET Core 3.0?

This is a great news that Microsoft embeds good-old desktop APIs in .NET Core 3.0 with such an outstanding compatibility. It is worth noting that so far (February 2019) there is no plan to port Windows Forms and WPF on other platforms than Windows.  So, what are the benefits of porting an existing application to .NET Core 3.0?

I found answers in this recent How to Port Desktop Applications to .NET Core 3.0 Channel9 30 minutes video at 5:12. Basically you’ll get more deployment flexibility, Core Runtime and API improvements and also more performances.

Microsoft promises to not urge anyone to port existing Winforms and WPF application to .NET Core 3.0. However for a Visual Studio extension shop like us if it is decided that VS will run on .NET Core 3.0 in the future, we hope to be notified many months ahead. We discussed that on twitter with Amanda Silver in January 2019. It looks like this spring 2019 they will take a decision. As a consequence to support both Visual Studio past versions running on .NET fx and new versions running on .NET Core 3, an extension will need to support both .NET Fx and .NET Core 3 desktop APIs.